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Unit 1-Believing in God
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What are some features of a religious upbringing?
Attend church school, celebrate religious festivals,re lessons,attend church with parents,christened and confirmed,thank God and taught to prayer.
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What are the four types of religious experience?
Numinous, conversion, miracle and near death experience.
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What are the problems with believing in miracles?
1)Require to believe eyewitness, may have been mistaken.2)Science explains many miracles.3)More sensible to look for natural explanation.4)Illusionists perform tricks, maybe miracles are just tricks.5)If God performs miracles, why not help everyone?
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Why do miracles lead to a belief in God?
1)Witnesses will beleive in te miracle, (e.g. terminally il)l.2)Could be signs from God to make you believe in him.3)Can get people through bad times.4)Bad things may happen if humans don't follow Gods commands.
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Sum up the causation argument.
Science says everything has a cause. So universe must have a cause. Only Go could be the cause, so God must exist.
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Sum up the design argument.
If something is designed, must have a designer-must be God.Dna is complex,laws of gravity complex,mechanism of eye and Big Band all must've had a designer.
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Explain William Paley's watch theory.
If you found a watch in an uninhabited area, would question where it came from as it's too complicated to be produced by chance and must've been designed,same with universe.
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What is St Thomas Aquinas' theory on the way of motion?
That everything is changing and moving and must be being changed or moved by something .Must've been started off my something.Must be God.
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What is St Thomas Aquinas' theory on the first cause?
Everything has a cause so something must've existed before everything else to start it off.God must've started it off.
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How does science explain how the world is the way it is now?
Matter is eternal, can't be created or destroyed. Big bang occurred 15 billion years ago. Grsvity pulled matter into starts and 5 billion years ago solar system formed. Gases on Earth produced changes(mutations). Better suited animals survived.
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What is evidence for the Big Bang?
Red shift effect, where red light from other galaxies is evidence that universe is expanding,
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What is evidence for evolution?
Fossil records and similarities in DNA.
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How can scientific explanation of the world lead to agnosticism or atheism?
1)Explanations can make people unsure whether God exists or not.2)Argument that God is needed to explain our existence not valid.3)If God created world, why are there multiple explanations.4)No reference to God in scientific explanations.
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What are Most Christians responses to Scientific explanations?
Believe in scientific theory but that God created universe as:Big bang had to be at correct microsecond to occur.Only God could've made gravity laws.God must've ensured carbon bonded with other elements.
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What is the response of some Christians to scientific explanation?
Science is wrong and Bible is right, think Big bang and evolution can be explained by Noah's flood.
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What is the response of other Christians to scientific explanations?
Scientific theories are correct as main points in Bible fit with science."Let there be light" in Genesis refers to Big bang and God creates life in Genesis.
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What is the response of many Christians to evil and suffering?
Believe God knows answer but they don't understand his reasons.
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What is the response of some Christians to evil and suffering?
God gave humans free will so they can do evil things that bring suffering. Thus, evil and suffering is the fault of humans and not God.
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What are other Christians response to evil and suffering?
Believe life is a test where people prepare souls for heaven. If there was no evil or suffering, people wouldn't be able to be good as good people help those who suffer.
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What do all Christians believe?
They must try to help those who suffer and fight evil.
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What are the two ways that Christians respond to evil and suffering?
Practical-saying prayers, giving money and helping sufferers. and Theoretical- free will, preparation for paradise.
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What are other reasons why people believe in God?
That we aren't hereby chance, life has meaning and purpose. And religions say similar things about God so all those people cannot be wrong.
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What are reasons why people don't believe in God? (there are 4)
1)Scientific explanations. 2)Problems with miracles. 3)Unanswered prayers. 4)Evil and suffering.
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How can unanswered prayers lead to agnosticism and atheism?
1)They may not feel the presence of God which you're meant to feel.If they feel the same after many attempts, may question existence of God. 2)If prayers are't answered may begin to wonder why God only helps some and not all.
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Unit 1- Matters of Life and Death.
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Why do people not believe in life after death?
1)Death ends life. 2)Mind develops as brain grows, if brain dies every part of us will.3)Mind can die before body, e.g. life support machine.4)We recognise each other by faces, how will we recognise each other after death?5)Where is life after death?
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What are three non-religious for believing in life after death?
1-near death experiences. 2-evidence of spirit world. 3-evidence of reincarnation.
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Describe why a near death experience can lead to a belief in life after death.
People experience feelings of peace and joy, feeling of floating above body, seeing bright light, entering another world, meeting dead relatives.
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Explain why evidence of a spirit world can lead to a belief in life after death.
Ghosts and Ouija boards appear to give evidence of living after death. People believe if mediums can contact dead then this is evidence of life after death.
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Explain how evidence of reincarnation can lead to a belief in life after death.
Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists believe that life after death involves souls being born into a new body. If it's true, would be evidence of reincarnation.
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When is abortion allowed in Great Britain?
If mothers life is at risk, mother's physical or mental health at risk. Child likely to be severely disabled. If there would be serious effect on other children in family.
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Up to how many weeks can an abortion be allowed?
24 weeks, most done before 12 weeks. Number of abortions decreased since 1991.
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What do people argue about abortion tend to argue about?What are the arguments?
Age when life begins. Some say life begins at conception. Others when it receives a soul(15 weeks). Others when the foetus can survive outside the womb.
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What are other arguments?
woman has right to do what she wants with her body.Unborn child's right replace mothers.Foetus born 22-24 weeks can survive, limit should be reduced to 18-20 weeks. Medical staff shouldn't be forced to carry abortions out if its against conscience.
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Why do some people want euthanasia to remain illegal?
1)Who would decide to allow euthanasia and whether someone really wanted or needed it.2)Cure may be found.3)It's doctors role to save lives.4)Relatives may falsely request euthanasia to gain from will.5)People may change their mind.
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Why do some people want euthanasia to be made legal?
1)Switching off life support machines is a form of euthanasia.2)It's basic human right to control whether to end your life.3)Advances in medication allowing people to be kept alive but have no quality of life.
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What do all Christians believe about life after death?
That life isn't all there is.
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What do Evangelical Protestants believe about life after death?
That body is resurrected at end of the world and people are judged by God.
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Why do Evangelical protestants believe in resurrection of the body?
1)St Paul teaches it . 2)Jesus' body rose from dead. 3)It is part of Christian Creeds.
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What do many Christians believe about life after death?
Immortality of the soul, when people die, soul goes straight to heaven.
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Why do Christians believe in immortality of the soul?
1)Jesus told criminal on cross would be in paradise straight after death.2)Communion of saints teaches that living and dead Christians can communicate with each other.3)Near death experiences- people say soul left body and goes toward light.
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Why do Christians believe in life after death?
1)Jesus rose from dead.2)Bible says there's life after death.3)Churches teach about life after death.4)Creeds say there's life after death.5)Near death experiences and paranormal is evidence.
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What do Roman Catholics and Evangelical Protestants teach about abortion?
That it is always wrong.
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Why do Roman Catholics and Evangelical Protestants believe this?
1)God created the life, preventing that life being born is murder.2)Life begins at conception, God banned murder so all abortions should be banned.
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What does the Church of England teach about abortion?
Disagree with it but allow it if it's the lesser of two evils.
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Why does the Church of England believe this?
1)Don't believe life starts at conception.2)Love thy neighbor. 3)Christians duty to remove suffering.4)Choose lesser of two evils.
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What do Catholics and many Protestants teach about Euthanasia?
Assisted suicide, voluntary euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia all wrong. But accept, turning off life support,painkillers that may shorten life and not giving treatment if it prevents death for a short time.
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Why do Catholics and many Protestants believe this?
1)Sanctity of life. 2)Euthanasia is form of murder, which is forbidden.3)Up to medical experts to decide when death has occurred.
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What do some Christians believe about euthanasia?
That any form of euthanasia is wrong and murder.
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Why do some Christians believe this?
1)Take Bible seriously and it bans suicide.2)Switching off life support classed as euthanasia- wrong as only God can end lives.3)Murder banned by God in Decalogue.
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What do a few Christians believe about euthanasia?
Accept limited use of euthanasia.
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Why do few Christians believe this?
1)Medicine has progressed, can't be sure what God's wishes are.2)Love thy neighbor.3)Human right to have control over what doctors do to you.
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What do Muslims believe about life after death?
Resurrection of the body- stay in grave until day of judgement.
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Why do Muslims believe in resurrection of the body?
1)All teachings found in Qur'an. 2)Qur'an is word of Allah so must be true.
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Why do Muslims believe in life after death?
1)What Qur'an teaches and it's the word of Allah.2)Life is a test from Allah-only makes sense if there's life after death. 3)would give lie meaning and purpose.4)Evidence of paranormal.
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What do many Muslims believe about abortion?
Allow up to 120 days for reasons like health of mother or baby.
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Why do many Muslims believe this?
1)Hadith and decisions of Muslim lawyers as 120 days is when foetus becomes a child.
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What do some Muslims believe about abortion?
That it should never be allowed.
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Why do some Muslims believe this?
1)Sanctity of life. 2)Allah says in Qur'an that people should never kill their children.
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What do other Muslims believe?
Abortion is only allowed if mothers life is at risk.
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Why do other Muslims believe this?
1)Lesser of two evils. 2)Shari'ah says mothers life takes priority.
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What do most Muslims believe about euthanasia?
It is always wrong.
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Why do most Muslims believe this?
1)Qur'an bans suicide. 2)Muammad said Muslim dying painful death on battlefield who commits suicude won't go to paradise.3)Life is a test- euthanasia makes test end early.
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What so some Muslims believe about Euthanasia?
Switching off life support isn't euthanasia.
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Why do some Muslims believe this?
1)Muslim lawyers have agreed to switch off machines when there are no signs of life.2)When someone is brain dead, Allah has already taken life.
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Unit 1- Marriage and Family Life.
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What are changing attitudes to marriage and family life?
1)More couples live together before getting married(1971-7% in 1989-48%).2)Fewer people getting married. 3)More marriages end in divorce.
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What are non-religious arguments for cohabitation?
1)Enables couples to get to know each other.2)Couples can find out if they are sexually compatible.3)Couples can split without hassle of divorce.4)Couple can marry if they decide to have children.
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What are non-religious arguments against cohabitation?
1)Encourages casual attitude to relationships based on selfishness.2)Can know if they're compatible without living together.3)Too easy to break up.4)Stable home for children best achieved by marriage.
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What is the purpose of non-religious marriage?
1)for man and woman to comfort each other.2)Have a happy sex life.3)Bring up children in a stable environment.
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What are key elements of a non-religious marriage ceremony?
1)Public witness that there is no reason why a couple cannot marry each other.2)Exchange of vows.3)Exchange of rings.
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What are reasons why non-religious people marry and don't have sex outside of marriage?
1)Prevents STD's.2)Children happiest when brought up in stable family, can be achieved by marriage.3)Marriage is a legal contract, likely to stay together for life.
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What are non-religious attitudes to divorce?
Most approve of divorce if marriage has broken down, but believe divorce should be difficult to obtain.
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Why do non-religious people have this attitude?
1)if there's no love, it will cause suffering to parents and children.2)If mothers and fathers devote lives to marriage they deserve protection from law.
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What do Christians regard marriage as?
A gift from God.
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What are the purposes of Christian marriage?
1)Couple to be able to live together in love.2)Couple to have lawful sex.3)Couple to have comfort and companionship.4)Couple to have children.5)Couple to create Christian family.
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What are the main features of a Christian wedding?
1)Exchange of vows before God.2)Exchange of rings blessed by God.3)Prayers, Bible readings.4)Communion to unite couple with Christ and eac
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What do most Christians believe about sex outside of marriage?
Sex should only happen in marriage, so sex outside of marriage is wrong.
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Why do most Christians believe this?
1)Bible teaches that fornication (sex outside marriage or promiscuity) is sinful.2)Church leaders and catechism say sex before marriage is sin.3)Sex just for procreation.
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What do some Christians believe about sex outside of marriage?
It is allowed if couple are in long-term relationship and intend to marry.
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Why do some Christians have this attitude?
1)Jesus taught that love is most important thing.2)Bible doesn't specifically condemn it.3)Church has come to terms with modern attitudes on cohabitation.
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What do all Christians believe?
Adultery is wrong- breaks marriage vow and 7th commandment.
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What do Roman Catholics believe about divorce?
There can be no divorce.
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Why do Roman Catholics believe this?
1)Jesus banned divorce.2)Couple can never divorced according to God's law.3)Re-marriage cannot occur as still married in eyes of God.
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What do most non-Catholic Christians believe about divorce?
Disapprove of divorce but believe if marriage goes wrong there can be divorce.
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Why do most non-Catholic Christians believe this?
1)God prepared to forgive sins if people are determined to live new life.2)Jesus allowed divorce for adultery.3)Lesser of two evils.
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What does the Christian church and New testament teach about family life?
1)Parents should love children and provide for them.2)Parents should set good example and encourage them to go to church.3)Children should obey and respect parents.4)Children must care for parents when they're unable to.
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Why do Christians believe family life is important?
1)Bible references importance of it.2)Christians believe God created families to keep society together.3)Family is basis of society.4)Family is where children introduced to faith.5)Teachings of divorce state Christians should stay together-raise kids
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What do Catholics believe about homosexuality?
Being homosexual not a sin. But homosexual sexual relationship is sin.
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Why do Catholics believe this?
1)Bible condemns sexual activity.2)Church teaches people can't help sexual orientation but can help sexual activity.
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What do many Evangelical Protestants believe about homosexuality?
A sin but homophobia is also a sin.
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Why do Evangelical Protestants believe this?
1)Bible condemns it.2)All churches taught it was wrong in the past.
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What do Liberal Protestants believe about homosexuality?
Accept homosexuality- have homosexual priests. But all homosexual sexual activity is wrong.
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Why do Liberal Protestants believe this?
1)Bible teachings are due for re-interpreting.2)Main Christian belief or love and acceptance.3)Believe holy spirit approves of homosexuality.
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What are Catholics attitudes to contraception?
Artificial contraception forbidden- sex for procreation.
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Why do Catholics believe this?
1)Popes throughout history have forbidden artificial conception.2)Some contraceptions have similar effect to early abortion.3)Can lead to promiscuity, more divorces, STI'S.
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What are non-Catholic Christian attitudes to contraception?
Allowed if it's to limit family size.
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Why do no-Catholic Christians believe this?
1)Bible doesn't forbid it. 2)Prevent spread of AIDS/HIV.3)Standard of living for children higher if family size is small.
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What is the purpose of Muslim marriage?
1)Follow example of Muhammad.2)Share a life of love.3)Have children and bring them up as good Muslims.4)Have legal sex.
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What are the main features of a Muslim marriage ceremony?
1)Statement in front of witnesses. 2)Signing of marriage contract.3)Sermon, prayers, Qur'an readings.4)A wedding feast.
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How many wives can a Muslim man have?
4, but cannot have more than one in Britain.
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What are Muslims beliefs on sex outside of marriage?
It is not allowed.
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Why do Muslims believe this?
1)Qur'an teaches that it's the same as adultery and is a sin.2)Qur'an and Shari'ah say boys and girls should be separated after puberty.3)strict punishments for it.4)Wear baggy clothes.5)Sex for procreation.
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What do some Muslims believe about divorce?
It is not allowed as marriage should be for life.
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Why do some Muslims believe this?
1)Muhammad said divorce is most hated of lawful things.2)Parental pressure to avoid divorce and family conflict.3)Threat of hell on day of judgement.4)Iddah(wait 3 months to save marriage) says it shouldn't be allowed.
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What do most Muslims believe about divorce?
It should be permitted if marriage doesn't work.
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Why do most Muslims believe this?
1)Shari'ah law permits divorce and remarriage.2)Lesser of two evils.3)Qur'an sets out Iddah as well as rules on child custody and divorced women, so divorce should be allowed.4)In contracts, if divorce occurs, mahr happens.(man gives back dowry).
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What do Muslims teach about family life?
1)Parents have duty to care for children.2)Mother has to keep good Muslim home.3)Father has duty to provide material needs.4)Bring up kids with Islam.5)Adoption is not allowed in Islam-duty of family to care for kids.6)Children must respect parents.
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Why do Muslims believe family life is important?
1)Created by Allah to keep society together.2)Way Allah wants kids to be brought.3)Qur'an says children are gift from Allah-will be judged on this.4)Muhammad married and had family- Muslims must follow his example.
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What do most Muslims think about homosexuality?
That it's wrong.
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Why do most Muslims believe this?
1)It's condemned in Qur'an.2)Muhammad condemned it in several Hadith.3)Allah stated in Qur'an that only lawful form of sex it between married man and woman.4)denies possibility of family.
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What do some Muslims think about homosexuality?
It is acceptable.
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Why do some Muslims believe this?
1)Believe Islam is religion of tolerance, so should tolerate others.2)Believe Allah created all people and loves them.3)Believe people are born homosexual- Allah must've wanted them to be this way.
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What do all Muslims believe about contraception?
It shouldn't be used to prevent children.
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What do some Muslims believe about contraception?
That it's going against the will of Allah and shouldn't be used at all.
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Why do some Muslims believe this?
1)"You should not kill your child for fear of want"-Birth control.2)Sex just for procreation.3)Opposed to abortion, contraception similar to early abortion not allowed.4)Duty of Muslims to have large families.
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What do other Muslims believe about contraception?
Permitted to limit family size and prevent harm to mother.
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Why do other Muslims believe this?
1)Several hadiths that say Muhammad permitted natural methods.2)so extra burdens aren't placed on man and woman.3)In some cases, not to use it would be like suicide.4)Muslim lawyers allow it as it's differnet from abortion.
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Unit 1- Religion and Community Cohesion.
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How have attitudes towards men and women changed?
1)women have right to vote.2)women have right to equal pay.3)women have right not to be discriminated against.
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Why did these attitudes change?
1)During wars, women took over mens jobs.2)Suffragette movement showed women no longer prepared to not be treated equally.3)Labour government in 60's and 70's dedicated to equal rights.
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What do Evangelical Protestants believe about the roles of men and women?
Men should be head of family, women shouldn't speak in church or be ministers.
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Why do Evangelical Protestants believe this?
1)St Paul said women shouldn't speak in chruch.2)Traditionally, men had leadership in church.3)Bible is unalterable word of God.
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What does the Church of England believe about the roles of men and women?
Men and women should be equal- can be female minister.
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Why does the Church of England believe this?
1)St Paul said there is no man or woman-all one person.2)Jesus treated women as equals, had women followers.3)Evidence that women were priests in 4th century.
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What do Roman Catholics teach about the roles of men and women?
Men and women are equal but only men can become priests.
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Why do Roman Catholics believe this?
1)Jesus chose men to be his successors.2)Jesus was a man and priest represents Jesus in the mass.
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What do some Muslims believe about the roles of men and women.
Men should support family, women have children.
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Why do some Muslims believe this?
1)Qur'an teaches these roles.2)Roles shown in the Shari'ah.
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What do other Muslims believe about the roles of men and women?
Men and women are equals and should both work,But family comes first for women.
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Why do other Muslims believe this?
1)Qur'an teaches men and women are equal in religion and education.2)Modern society needs educated women and women to have careers.3)Muhammad encouraged men and women to worship in Mosque.
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What are the benefits of living in a multi-ethnic society?
1)Less chance of war.2)More progress made-new ideas.3)Can see other races and religions traditions.4)Life more interesting,5)Show we have more in common than differences.
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What are problems that could occur in a multi-ethnic society?
1)Racially or religiously prejudiced employers.2)People e.g. police may treat other differently due to race or religion.3)Prejudiced landlords could refuse accommodtion.
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What are the effects of discrimination and racism on a multi-ethnic society?
1)People may feel alienated and begin to work against society.2)Rise of groups that create racial hatred can lead to violence.3)Young people may turn to crime if they are discriminated against.4)people that feel alienated may join extremist groups.
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How does the British government promote community cohesion?
1)Financial support to groups promoting it.2)Part of education.3)Race relations act 1976 banned racism.4)Encourage members of ethnic minority to become MP's.
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Why is community cohesion important?What could happen without it?
1)People have different ideas on what society should be like-could lead to conflict.2)Groups of people could lose allegiance to Britain and be prepared to use extreme methods of violence.3)Divisions could lead to racial/religious motivated violence.
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What does Christianity teach about racial harmony?
Teaches all forms of racism are wrong,
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Why do Christians believe this?
1)Jesus treated different races equally.2)St Peter had vision from God-told him God has no favourites.3)God created all races in his image.4)Churches all have members, ministers and priests of all races and colours.
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What does Islam teach about racial harmony?
All forms of racism wrong.
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Why do Muslims believe this?
1)Qur'an teaches God made all races on Earth.2)Muhammad said in last sermon that no race or superior to any other.3)Muhammad told Muslims that they are one community.
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What are the benefits of a multi-faith society?
1)People can learn about other religions.2)People can understand different religions beliefs.3)Likely to become more understanding about others religion.4)Religious freedom will help to stop religious conflict.
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What are three issues raised for multi-faith societies?
1)conversion.2)Bringing up children. 3)Inter-faith marriages.
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How can conversion be an issue in multi-faith societies?
Some religions feel it's their duty to convert people. Some may feel it's a form of discrimination against different religions. Can lead to conflict if people are told their religion is wrong.
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How can bringing up children be an issue in multi-faith societies?
Children should have religious freedom and are taught about religions. Most religions want parents to provide child with religious upbringing. State schools provide non-religious way of life, children may be tempted away from religion.
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How can Interfaith marriages be an issue in multi-faith societies?
If people of different faiths marry there are problems. Religious ceremony cannot take place. Which religion would child be brought up into. What happens when couple die.Feeling of betrayal if child fell in love with someone with different religion.
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How do religions work to promote Community Cohesion in the UK?
1)Pope Benedict addressed issues of Community Cohesion.2)Some religions finding ways to allow interfaith marriages.
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How are religions finding ways to deal with issues of bringing up children?
1)Some Protestant churches and Jewish synagogues encourage to bring children up in both religions.2)Leaders from CofE,Hindu,Sikh,Muslin,Jewish and Buddhist signed a statement so children in state school taught about main religions in UK.
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How are religions joining together to promote community cohesion?
1)Interfaith networks for UK to encourage good relations between different faith groups.2)places of worship work together and participate in other religions traditions.
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