Rates, equilibrium and pH

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  • Created by: Kat098
  • Created on: 16-04-18 09:10
Rate of reaction
Change in concentration of a reactant or a product per unit time
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Rate constant, k
the constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentrations of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders
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Rate equation
rate = k[A][B]
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Half-life
Time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half
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Reaction mechanism
A series of steps that make up the overall reaction
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Rate-determining step
The slowest step in a reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction
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Intermediate
A species formed in one step of a multi-step reaction that is used up in another step
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Arrhenius plot
A graph of lnk=lnA - Ea/R x 1/T, where k is plotted agaisnt 1/T
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InA
Y-intercept
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-Ea/R
Gradient
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Homogeneous equilibrium
An equilibrium where all speices are in the same physical state
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Heterogeneous equilibrium
An equilibrium where the species are in different physical states
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Kp
)Partial pressure of products) / (partial pressure of reactants)
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Partial pressures
The pressure an individual gaseous substance would exert if it occupied a whole reaction vessel on its own
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Mole fraction
A measure of how much of a given substance is present in a reaction mixture
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Bronsted-Lowry acid
a proton, H+, donor
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Bronsted-Lowry base
a proton, H+, acceptor
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Conjugate acid-base pairs
A set of two speiceis that transform into eachother by gain or loss of a proton
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Alkali
A base that dissolves in water forming OH- ions
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Neutralisation
An acid and base react together to produce a salt and water
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Strong acid
An acid that completely dissociates in solution
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Acid dissociation constant, Ka
Ka = [H+][A-] / [HA]
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pH
pH = -log[H+]
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[H+]
[H+] = 10^-pH
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Ionic product of water, Kw
Kw = [H+][OH-]
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Buffer solution
A mixture that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of acid or base
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Equivalence point
Point in a titration when the volume of one solution has reacted exactly with the volume of the second solution
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End point
Point in a titration where an equal concentration of weak acid and conjugate base forms of the indicator
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Indicator
Has one colour in acid form, and a diffferent colour in conjugate base form
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Phenolphthalein
Indicator range 8 --> 10. clear --> pink
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Bromothymol blue
Indicator range 6 --> 7.5. Yellow --> blue
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Methyl orange
Indicator range 2.5 --> 4. Red --> yellow
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Card 2

Front

the constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentrations of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders

Back

Rate constant, k

Card 3

Front

rate = k[A][B]

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A series of steps that make up the overall reaction

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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