# rates equilibirum and ph

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Rate of reaction
Change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time
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Units of rate
mol dm^-3 s^-1
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Order
The order with respect to a reactant is the power of which the concentration of the reactant is raised in the rate equation
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Rate equation
A+B = C is given by rate [A]^m [B]^n
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How to work out the overall order
The sum of the individual orders.
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Units for the first order:
S^-1
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Units for second order:
dm^3 mol^-1 s^-1
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Units for third order:
dm^6 mol^-2 s^-1
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Half Life:
Time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half.
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Dynamic Equilibrium
A closed system where the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the backwards reaction.
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Equlibrium Law
Kc = ([C]^c x [D]^d) / ([A]^a x [D]^d)
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Kc is only changed by:
Temperature
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Kc increases as temperature rises if:
forward reaction is endothermic.
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Kc decreases as temperature rises if:
forward reaction is exothermic.
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Kc is affected by a catalyst how?
No change.
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A Bronsted Lowry acid is what?
A proton donor.
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A Bronsted Lowry base is what?
A proton acceptor.
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What is an alkali?
A base that dissolves in water that forms OH- ions.
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Neutralisation reaction equation.
Acid + Base = Salt + Water.
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Acid + Carbonate =
Salt + Water + CO2
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Acid + Metal =
Salt + Hydrogen
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Acid base pair.
A pair of 2 species that transform into each other through gain or lose of a proton.
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pH
-log([H+(aq)])
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[H+] =
10^-pH
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Strong Acid
Completely dissociates in solution.
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Weak Acid
Partially dissociates in solution.
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Acid Dissociation constant (Ka)
[H+(aq)] x [A-(aq)] / [HA(aq)]
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pKa =
-log10 (Ka)
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Ka =
10^-pKa
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Kw
[H+(aq)] [OH-(aq)]
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Buffer Solution
A mixture that minimises pH changes on addition of a small amount of acid or base.
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End point
A point in a titration at which concentrations fo the weak acid and conjugate base forms an indicator.
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Indicators of a strong acid, strong base -
Methyl Orange or Phenolphthalein.
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Indicators of a weak acid, strong base -
Phenolphthalein
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Indicators of a strong acid, weak base -
Methyl Orange
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Indicators of weak acid, weak base -
No indicators.
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Standard enthalpy change of neutralisation.
The energy change when the neutralisation of an aqueous acid by an aqueous base to form 1 mole of water under standard conditions.
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## Other cards in this set

Units of rate

mol dm^-3 s^-1

Order

Rate equation

### Card 5

#### Front

How to work out the overall order