Rag Desh

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What is a Raga?
A scale type sequence of notes (different going up than going down) associated with a particular mood -Rasa-
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What time is Rag Desh associated with ?
Evening, and monsoon season
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How is the music passed on?
Oral tradition
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When is the music mostly played?
Religious or ceremonial events
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What are the 3 main elements of North Indian/Hindustani music?
The Rag, the drone and the Tala (rhythms)
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What is the Tala?
A rythmic pattern or cycle, Talas vary in the number of beats
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What is the first ( most important ) beat of the cycle/Tala called?
Sam
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What is a 10 beat cycle called?
Jhaptal
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What is a 16 beat cycle called? (the most commonly used Tala)
Tintal
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What is the traditional structure of Indian music?
Alap, Jhor, Gat, Jhalla
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Describe a typical Alap
Rag is first introduced, musician improvises around the Rag, no clear pulse, no percussion, usually unaccompanied (apart from drone)
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Describe the Jhor
Section with a steady, regular pulse
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Describe the Ghat
Even faster, the Tabla player establishes a clear pulse and the melody uses improv and fixed compositions
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Describe the Jhalla
Very fast-paced feel, music more decorative and vibrant, with a lot of improvisation by the Tabla and melody instruments
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What is a Tambura (sometimes written Tanpura)?
A drone instrument, with 4 strings and no frets
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Describe the Sitar
Fretted string instrument, usually with 3-4 playing strings and 3-4 drone strings and many sympathetic strings underneath those (usually 17 strings in total)
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What is the Sitar played with?
A Mizrab - wire finger plectrum
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What are the Tabla?
A pair of drums: Dayan-a smaller wooden right hand drum played with fingertips , Bayan-Larger metal left hand drum played with the heel of the hand. Dayan is tuned to the Sa (root note) of the Rag
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What is a Pakawaj?
A double headed drum
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How do the musicians know when to end (all indian music is improvised)
End of improvs marked by a Tihai - short phrase played three times, often across the beat, before it lands on sam.
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What is a meend? (used by the sitar in A.S version and the voice in 'Mewar'
pitch bend
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What is a Sarangi?
Fretless bowed instrument (most similar to violin), held in the lap, 3 main strings and up to 36 sympathetic strings, played by pushing the nail cuticle up against string
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What is a Sarod?
(most similar to Banjo) Fretless, shorter than the sitar, played by plucking string with coconut shell plectrum, has main strings and sympathetic, played with nail edge
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What is an Esraj?
Fretted, bowed instrument with
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What is a Bansuri?
6-7 bamboo flute
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Who is a Guru?
A teacher that students often go and live with for years to learn how to master their instrument
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How is Indian music 'Microtonal'?
There are notes in-between western 'semitones' giving the music many more pitches and notes to use
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Which Instruments are in the Anoushka Shankar version? (recorded in Carnegie hall, New York, 2001)
Sitar, Tabla, Tanpura
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What is the structure of the Anoushka Shankar version?
Alap, Ghat 1, Ghat 2, Jhalla (ends in a double Tihai)
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What happens at the start of the Alap
She first introduces the rag by running her hand over all of the sympathetic strings of the sitar
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What happens in Ghat 1?
Sitar plays fixed composition,which is decorated with Meend and Tan (scale flourish) and the Tabla enter playing the Jhaptal (10 beat cycle). There is dialogue between the Sitar and Tabla
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What happens in Ghat 2?
Faster tempo, Tabla switches to Jhaptal (16 beat cycle)
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What happens in the Jhalla?
Drone strings on the guitar are strummed to create a rhythmic effect, piece ends in a double Tihai
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Which instruments are used in 'Mhara Janam Maran'?
Tanpura, Voice, Sarangi, Sarod, Pakhawaj (double headed drum) cymbals and Tabla
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What is the structure of 'Mhara Janam Maran'
Alap (short intro by Sarod player, then male voice improvises in free time using the Rag) , Bhajan
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What happens in the Bhajan?
Fixed composition song, first line used as a refrain. Tabla enters (playing 8 beat cycle-Keherwa), Sarod and Sarangi play solos between verses. The dynamics and tempo increase, the music becomes more exciting, the cymbals play more
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What type of song is used in 'Mhara Janam Maran'?
A Hindu devotional song from Rhajastan
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What part of the 'Wertheimer and Gorn:Rag dish' do we study?
Part 3
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What album is it from?
Piryagitah-The nightingale
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Which instruments are used?
Tanpura, Tabla, Esraj, Bansuri
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What is the structure?
Alap (Drone established by tanpura, Bansuri enters exploring notes of the Raga), Ghat 1, Ghat 2
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What happens in Ghat 1?
Slow tempo, Bansuri plays lyrical unaccompanied melody, tabla enters playing Rupak (7 beat tala), Bansuri and tabla player embellish their original patterns. The instruments then swap, so the Bansuri improvises and the Tabla accompianies
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What happens in Ghat 2?
Fast tempo, Tabla now uses Ektal (12 beat Tabla), Bansuri plays elaborate melody with wide pitch, many Tans and slides.
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How does it end?
With several Tihais. The drone continues for a short while after the melody ends
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What time is Rag Desh associated with ?

Back

Evening, and monsoon season

Card 3

Front

How is the music passed on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When is the music mostly played?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 3 main elements of North Indian/Hindustani music?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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