Radioactivity

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  • Created by: Jordan
  • Created on: 07-06-13 12:04
Definition of an isotope
Atoms of the same element with the SAME number or protons but DIFFERENT number of neutrons
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Identifying α, β and γ radiation
Alpha stopped by paper, Beta stopped by a few mm of aluminium, If neither then gamma
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Applications of α, β and γ radiation
alpha, smoke detectors, Beta thickness of cardboard measurements, gamma detecting leaks in pipes
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Safety of handling sources in lab
Handle with long tongs/tweezers as intensity decreases with distance, store in lead box
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Examples of background radiation in LAB
cosmic rays, ground rocks, radon gas, nuclear fallout, Waste from power plants, NOT FOOD
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Random nature of radioactive decay
equal probability of any nucleus decaying, cannot know which or when next one will decay, rate of decay is unaffected by surrounding conditions
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decay constant
the probability of a nucleus decay per unit time (usually seconds)
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Activity
Number of nuclei of an isotope that decay each second
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Units of activity
Bq
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Half life
Time taken for half of the nuclei of A PARTICULAR ISOTOPE present to decay OR time taken for the activity of an isotope to half
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What was observed with rutherford scattering
Most alpha particles pass through, small number are scattered by large angles
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Conclusions from this
Atom is mostly empty space, Nucleus is very small and positive, nucleus is most the mass of the atom, Nucleus is much smaller compared to separation between nuclei.
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Why are other methods used for measuring nucleus radius?
Strong force complicates results, scattering is produced from the protons not the whole nucleus, alpha particles are massive so cause the nucleus to recoil
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advantages of electron scattering
electrons are not subject to strong force, electrons give greater resolution as they can get closer, they produce less recoil, and are easier to produce
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typical nuclear radius
1x10^(-15) OR 1fm
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Information that can be gained using alpha
maximum diameter of nucleus, Proton number and nuclear charge, mass of nucleus is most of atom
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Information that can be gained from electron scattering
Nuclear radius, Nuclear density
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Identifying α, β and γ radiation

Back

Alpha stopped by paper, Beta stopped by a few mm of aluminium, If neither then gamma

Card 3

Front

Applications of α, β and γ radiation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Safety of handling sources in lab

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Examples of background radiation in LAB

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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