Radioactivity

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 28-03-16 12:45
How do atoms split up to form smaller atoms?
The nucleus divides and protons, neutrons and electrons fly out. This is called radioactive decay so the element is said to be radioactive.
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What is the process called that involves atoms splitting up?
Radioactive decay, and the element is radioactive.
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What are the three types of radiation?
Alpha, Beta and Gamma.
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What are alpha particles made up of and what are some factors about them?
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons. Positively charged. Least penetrating, stopped by a thin sheet of paper or a few cm of air.
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What are beta particles made up of and what are some factors about them?
Beta particles consist of fast moving electrons. Negatively charged. Less penetrating than Gamma. Travel through 1m of air, stopped by 5mm thick sheet of aluminium.
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What are gamma rays made up of and what are some factors about them?
Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic waves. No charge. Most penetrating. Pass through several cm of lead or more than a metre of concrete.
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What effect does an electric field have on alpha particles?
Alpha particles are deflected towards the negative charge as they're positive, heavy and slow-moving.
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What effect does an electric field have on beta particles?
Beta particles are deflected towards the positive charge, they're negative, light and fast-moving.
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What effect does an electric field have on Gamma rays?
Gamma rays are undeflected because of the short wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation.
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What happens when a charged particle goes through a magnetic field?
It experiences a force referred to as the motor effect.
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What effect does a magnetic field have on alpha particles?
Alpha particles are deflected by the magnetic field, it confirms they carry a positive charge.
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What effect does a magnetic field have on beta particles?
Beta particles are deflected by the magnetic field, they carry a negative charge.
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What effect does a magnetic field have on gamma rays?
Gamma rays are unaffected by a magnetic field, proving they're uncharged.
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What happens when an element emits an alpha particle?
Its mass number decreases by 4 and its atomic number decreases by 2.
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What happens when an element emits a beta particle?
Its mass number is unchanged and its atomic number increases by 1.
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What happens in electron capture? (the process which is inverse of beta decay)
One of the orbital electrons is captured by a proton in the nucleus, forming a neutron and emitting an electron neutrino. Product is one place to the left in the periodic table.
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What happens during positron emission? (beta decay)
A proton is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino. The positron is a type of beta particle. The product is one place to the left in the periodic table.
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What is the definition of half-life?
Half-life is the time taken for half the atoms in a radioisotope to decay or the time taken for the radioactivity of a radioisotope to fall to half its initial value.
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What is half-life?
The time taken to decay to half the number of radioactive atoms.
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What are the consequences for living cells due to to alpha, beta and gamma radiation?
They can damage cells and DNA. Changes in DNA can lead to mutations and formation of cancerous cells.
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How is Cobalt-60 used in medicine?
Cobalt-60 is used in radiotherapy, treating cancer. High energy y-radiation kills cancer cells, preventing malignant tumours from developing.
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How is Technetium-99m used in medicine?
Technetium-99m is used as a tracer to label a molecule which may be taken up by the tissue in which needs to be studied.
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How is Carbon-14 used in radio-dating?
Carbon-14 is used to calculate the age of plant and animal remains.
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How is Potassium-40 used in radio-dating?
Potassium-40 is used to estimate the geological age of rocks.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the process called that involves atoms splitting up?

Back

Radioactive decay, and the element is radioactive.

Card 3

Front

What are the three types of radiation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are alpha particles made up of and what are some factors about them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are beta particles made up of and what are some factors about them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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