Radiation

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  • Created by: naomi2310
  • Created on: 24-12-14 17:08
What type of radiation do smoke detectors use?
Alpha radiation, a weak source, the source causes ionisation, and a current flows between the electrodes.
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What type of radiation do traces use?
Short half life beta or gamma emitters. A well known example is the use of iodine 131. They must be Gamma or Beta emitters, so they pass out of the body quickly
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What type of rays does radiotherapy use?
Gamma rays are used, and MUST be directed carefully at the right dosage to kill cancer cells without damaging normal celss.
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What type of rays do you need to sterilise food and surgical instruments?
Gamma rays. Food can be exposed to gamma rays to kill microbes, making them last longer. Medical instruments can be sterilized in the same way, rather than boiling them. The advantage is that it doesn't involve high temperatures, and is safe to eat.
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Why do commercial pilots have an increased risk of getting some types of cancer?
At high altitudes (e.g in jet planes), the background radiation increases because of more exposure to cosmic rays.
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What charges do alpha and beta particles have?
Alpha = Positive and Beta = Negative
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Why don't gamma rays give off charge?
Because they are electromagnetic waves.
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What do people do in order to protect themselves from radiation? (think hospital workers and nuclear industry workers)
1. They wear lead aprons, and stand behind lead screens. Because lead doesn't even absorb the most penetrating radiation - gamma. 2. Nuclear workers wear protective clothing and face masks, think the simpsons.
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Define 'Half Life'
The average time it takes for the number of nuclei in a radioactive isotope sample to halve.
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What does a short half life mean?
It means activity falls quickly, as lots of the nuclei decays quickly.
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How does radiation harm living cells?
Alpha, Beta and gamma radiation collides with molecules in living cells, collisions cause ionisation. Lower doses cause minor damage, but can cause mutant cells. CANCER. Higher doses kill cells completely, aka radiation sickness.
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Which source is the most dangerous outside the body?
Beta and Gamma, because it can get inside delicate organs
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Which source is the most dangerous inside the body?
Alpha, because it works in a localised area. Beta and gamma mostly just pass straight out without doing much damage.
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What safety precautions MUST you consider when handling radioactive materials?
Time, Contact, Distance, Presence of Lead and Specific Areas.
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What does the extent of the harmful effects of radiation depend on? (two things)
1. How much exposure you have to the radiation 2. The energy and penetration of the radiation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What type of radiation do traces use?

Back

Short half life beta or gamma emitters. A well known example is the use of iodine 131. They must be Gamma or Beta emitters, so they pass out of the body quickly

Card 3

Front

What type of rays does radiotherapy use?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of rays do you need to sterilise food and surgical instruments?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do commercial pilots have an increased risk of getting some types of cancer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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