Radiation and Radioactivity

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What are the three types of radiation
Gamma, beta and alpha
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What are the properties of alpha radiation
Helium nucleus, not very penetrating but highly ionisng
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What are the properties of beta radiation
A high speed electron, quite penetrating and quite ionising
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What are the porperties of gamma radiation
A wave that is very penetrating but the least ionising
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How do you get radiation
Isotopes are unstable and randomly eject matter to gain stability. The matter is one of the 3 radiations
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What can stop alpha radiation
Paper or skin
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What can stop beta radiation
Aluminium
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What can stop gamma radiation
Thick lead or concrete
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How does alpha radiation ionise an atom
It has a nucleus with two protons so attracts two electrons from the shell of an atom to turn it into an ion
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How does beta radiation ionise an atom
the electron repels another electron on the shell of an atom so it looses it and turns into an ion with a 1+ charge
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How does gamma radiation ionise an atom
The wave energises the electron on the shell causing it to break free and gives the atom a 1+ charge so is now an ion
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what happens in beta radiation
a neutron turns to a proton and electron which is fired out at speed
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What happens in alpha radiation
The nstable nuclei emits a helium nucleus of 2 neutrons and 2 protons
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What are dangers of a high dose of radiation
kills cells and can cause radiation sickness
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What are dangers of a low dose of radiation
mutates DNA, damages cells and can cause cancer
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What effects the dosage of radiation
Exposure time and the sources energy/penetrating level
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How can you protect yourself when handling radiation sources
Sheilding, full body suits, arms length distance, do not look directly at source, handle with tongs or remote controlled robot arm
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what are uses of radiation
Smoke alarms, paper thickness, tracers, sterillisation of food/medical equipment, treating cancer, detecting leaks in pipes
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how does a smoke alarm work
An alpha source is emitted that ionises air particles so they flow round the circuit but when smoke gets in it take alpha particles, breaks the circuit and the alarm rings
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How is gamma radiation used to steriilise food or medical equipment
High dose kills the microbes
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How is gamma radiation used to treat cancer
A high dose can kill cancerous cells but it is hard not to kill healthy cells at the same time
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How is gamma radiation used to detect leaks in pipes
A gamma source is put into the pipes and a detector is held above the ground, the most gamma radiation will come through the leak
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How is beta radiation used in measuring the thickness of paper
The paper goes through a roller and beta sources above emits electrons and different amounts of electrons get through depending on thickness of paper and rollers are adjusted
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the properties of alpha radiation

Back

Helium nucleus, not very penetrating but highly ionisng

Card 3

Front

What are the properties of beta radiation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the porperties of gamma radiation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you get radiation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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