Racial and ethnic politics

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What centuries were fundamental in bringing about change for ethnic minorities?
The 19th and 20th
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How did African Americans originally arrive to the USA?
Through slavery
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Were Native Americans considered citizens originally?
No
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What was the greatest fear of the founding fathers?
Tyranny and loss of freedom
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What did the founding fathers aim to create through the constitution?
Freedom
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What methods did slave owners use to create tyranny in their slaves?
Sexual intimidation, physical abuse, limitations and psychological intimidation
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What were slaves counted as originally in the constitution?
Three fifths of a person
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What year was the US constitution created?
1787
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What did southern states include in their constitution?
A clause ensuring that the slave trade continued until 1808
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When did the Northern States ban this Southern clause?
1808
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When were abolitionist societies formed?
1820s
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What was the underground railroad?
A network of safe houses for fleeing slaves
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What event brought slavery to an end?
The Civil War
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What years were the Civil War?
1861-1865
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How many amendments were made to the constitution in the five years following the Civil War?
Three
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What were these three amendments called?
The Civil Rights amendments
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What was the 13th Amendment?
Slavery was abolished
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What was the 14th Amendment?
Guaranteed full rights to all regardless of race
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What was the 15th amendment?
Guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race
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After the Civil Rights Amendments did the government compensate slaves?
No
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What happened when the unionist troops left the South in 1877?
The Southern leaders introduced Jim Crow Laws
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What did the Jim Crow laws do?
Took away the right to vote, introduced strict segregation and sex and marriage between races was made illegal
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What happened in Plessey v Ferguson?
The supreme court found that separate is okay as long as it does not infringe on the equality clause of the constitution
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What is the NAACP?
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
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What did Booker T. Washington advocate?
Black self sufficiency
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What did Marcus Garvey create in 1914?
The Universal Negro Improvement Association
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Where was the Universal Negro Improvement Association based and why?
Jamaica as it was thought that the former slaves could move there
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What was one of the Universal Negro Improvement Association's strategies?
Equality through economic independence
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How many members did the Universal Negro Improvement Association have in 1920?
Two million worldwide
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What did the Supreme Court rule on the 17th of May 1954 and what did this mean?
That segregation was unequal and thus unconstitutional so federal government was made responsible
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What did President Eisenhower feel about this ruling?
He was against it, preferring a more gradual approach
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What did the African-American population do in response to the president?
Decided to conduct campaigns designed to embarrass government into action
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Give examples of Black protests
Little rock central high school, lunch counter sit-ins, desegregating public transport
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Who introduced the Civil Rights Act?
President Johnson
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When was the Civil Rights Act introduced?
1964
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What was the Voting Rights Act?
The act that abolished devices used to deny the vote to African-Americans such as literacy tests
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When was the Voting Act introduced?
1965
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Roughly when did segregation end?
1965
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What did Malcolm X argue?
That segregation did not guarantee freedom and liberation could only come through economic self sufficiency
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What was the Watts and Chicago case?
Where riots erupted in the Watts area of Chicago
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What did white Americans think of the Watts riots?
They did not understand why they were occurring
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What did Martin Luther King do to help show white Americans why they were rioting?
He moved into an apartment in Chicago to highlight the living conditions of black America
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What did many of the black power movements aim to show?
That although freedom and equality was guaranteed by the constitution, it was an illusion and that government should rectify this through programmes
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What is affirmative action?
An action or policy favouring those who tend to suffer from discrimination
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Which president originally supported affirmative action?
President Lindon B Johnson
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What did the constitutional framework create?
Rugged individualism
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What happened in 1967 in response to affirmative action?
A white backlash
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Give an example of this backlash
Governor Wallace of Alabama who was a staunch racist, won 13.5% of the national vote
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What did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Bakke v University of California
That race can be a defining factor in selecting candidates but quotas aren't allowed
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Is affirmative action unconstitutional and why?
Yes because it favors one group over another which goes against the equality clause
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Why in some peoples views should America not have to compensate for slavery?
It was committed by their forefathers
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Give some evidence to show that affirmative action works?
In 1960 an NAACP study showed that only 15% of African-Americans are employed in white collar jobs but by 2002 this had risen to 70%
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What has the passing of the Fair Housing Act 1968 meant?
More African-Americans have moved to the suburbs out of poverty
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How many black senators were there in congress in 1970?
10
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How many black senators were there in congress in 2006?
40
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Is there more or less black men over 30 in prison now than before?
More
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What is a method of discrimination used by police?
Racial profiling
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What drug has an unfair sentencing difference?
Cocaine- crack has a longer sentence that pure which discriminates against black minorites.
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What is an example of disenfranchisement?
The fact that thirteen states have taken away the vote from those who have committed a felony.
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What is an argument that the University of Michigan used in the Grutter v Bollinger case?
That they chose the black candidate because they would act as a cultural enrichment
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Who proposed the immigration reform act of 2006?
Arlen Specter
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What did the immigration reform act of 2006 propose?
Increased boarder security, legal status for long-time illegal immigrants and increase the number of guest workers
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Did the immigrant reform act of 2006 get passed?
No, it failed to pass through the conference committee
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What did the comprehensive immigration reform act of 2007 suggest?
Legal status and a path to citizenshiop for 12-20 illegal immigrants and fund 300 miles of vehicle barriers, 105 camera towers and 20,000 more border patrol agents.
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Did the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 get passed?
No it failed to make it through senate
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What was the Dream Act of 2010?
It would have provided permanent residency to minors on specific requirements
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What is deferred action?
Offers protection to immigrants from deportation for three years
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What did the Obama administration want to do to the legalities of skilled immigrant workers
Expand them
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What was Obama's immigration reform?
Obama's immigration reform of 2014
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What is Black Nationalsim?
A social movement with a variety of aims centered around the creation of some sort of autonomy for black people
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Who supported black nationalism?
Garvey, Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan
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What is the conspiracy of Farrakhan over hurricane Katrina?
That the flood defenses were deliberately weakened to attempt to wipe out the black population
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What happened to Muslims after 9/11?
They were mass arrested, detained, specially registered, visited by the FBI, surveyed and deported.
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What did the Attorney General Ashcroft argue?
That it was "us" and "them" against muslims and that Americans were ready to fight them.
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How many tips did the FBI receive in the week post 9/11?
96,000
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How many violent incidents were there in the week post 9/11 against muslims?
165
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During the 1990s at what rate did the population of minorities grow?
13 times
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In 2010 what percentage of the US population was Hispanic?
16.3%
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In 2010 what percentage of the US population was African-American?
12.3%
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What percentage of Vermont is white?
95%
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What percentage of Hawaii is white?
Only 24%
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What percentage of Mississippi is black?
37%
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What percentage of Montana is black?
0.4%
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What percentage of New Mexico is Hispanic?
46%
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What percentage of West Virginia is Hispanic?
1.2%
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Between 2000 and 2010, how much did the African-American population grow by?
12%
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Between 2000 and 2010, how much did the Hispanic population grow by?
43%
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Name the four majority-minority states
New Mexico, Texas, California and Hawaii
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What are majority minority states?
States where minorities form a majority of the population
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By 2025, what is the estimated percentage of the Hispanic and Asian peoples in the US population?
25%
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When did the Civil Rights movement begin?
1950s
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What are Civil Rights?
Positive acts of government designed to protect persons against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government or individuals
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What type of a movement was the Civil Rights Movement originally?
A peaceful movement
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What was the SCLC?
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
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What did the SCLC advocate?
Civil rights
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Who was the leader of the SCLC?
Martin Luther King Jr
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Who is currently head of the Nation of Islam?
Louis Farrakhan
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Did the Nation of Islam advocate peace?
Yes
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Who was the original leader of the Nation of Islam?
Elijah Mohammed
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What did Marcus Garvey try to do?
Return African-Americans to Africa
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What did Elijah Mohammed believe he was?
The prophet of Allah
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Who did Jesse Jackson originally work for?
The SCLC and MLK
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What was operation push?
A movement that threatened a boycott in Chicago if white store owners did not start using black clerks
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Who created operation push?
Jesse Jackson
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Where was Jesse Jackson when MLK was assassinated?
With him
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What was the Rainbow Coalition?
A movement that pushed for equal rights for all
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Who created the Rainbow Coalition?
Jesse Jackson
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What organisation did the Rainbow Coalition eventually merge with?
Operation push
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What are the two philosophical arguments for and against affirmative action?
Equality of opportunity or equality of results
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What is an affirmative action?
A programme that entails giving the members of a previously disadvantaged minority group a head start in areas such as higher education and employment
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Who was the first President to use affirmative action?
President Kennedy
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What was the first ever AA programme?
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
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What were the orders of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission?
That projects financed with federal money take affirmative action to ensure that hiring practices would be free from racial bias
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Who was the second president to use AA?
Johnson
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Where did Johnson use AA?
Regarding federal government contractors
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What is the main argument against AA?
It creates reverse discrimination
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What is reverse discrimination?
Where the preference for one group leads inevitably to the discrimination of another group
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What was Regents of the University of California v. Bakke?
Where a white medical student was denied a place at the university despite the fact that he scored higher than the minority students
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What was the ruling of University of California v. Bakke?
That AA was not unconstitutional and that the university could continue using it, Bakke was accepted to study.
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Give an example of someone campaigning against AA
Jennifer Gratz
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Give an example of a group that campaigns for AA?
BAMN
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How does the University of Michigan carry out AA?
They use a points based system, you need 100 to get in and minorities are automatically awarded 20 extra points
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What part of the constitution can it be argued that AA goes against?
The equal protection clause
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What was the vote in the Gratz v. Bollinger case?
6-3
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What was the ruling of Gratz v. Bollinger?
That AA was unconstitutional
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What was Parents Involved in Community Schools Inc v. Seattle School District?
In Seattle parents can apply to any school in the region, meaning many schools are oversubscribed and have to use tiebreakers, this included race. Parents Involved in Community Schools found this out and sued.
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What was the ruling in Parents Involved in Community Schools Inc v. Seattle School District No1?
That using race as a tie breaker was unconstitutional accept in private schools
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What was the ruling of Fischer v. University of Texas?
It ruled in favour of Affirmative Action
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How does American Government summarise the Supreme Court's view of affirmative action?
The courts subject any quota system to scrutiny and look for 'compelling justification', quotas can't be used by local & state government without showing discrimination needs correcting, quotas by federal rather than state law get more deference
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What are the arguments in favour of affirmative action?
Multiculturalism, rights previous wrongs, opens up new areas of employment, diverse student body, promotes racial tolerance, effective in providing equality of opportunity and it works
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Give evidence that AA works
Between 1960 and 1995 the percentage of black people aged 25-29 who graduated from university rose from 5% to 15%
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What are quotas?
Set aside programmes that benefit previously disadvantaged minorities by which a certain number of places are reserved for those of the previously disadvantaged group
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What is multiculturalism?
The existence within a nation state of people from many different cultures whose own learned patterns of behaviour lead to diversity of culture
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What are the arguments against affirmative action?
Reverse discrimination, can lead to ill-prepared or educated workers/students, condescending to minorities, creates a society based on race, encourages prejudice, quota system under a different name and focus on groups not individuals
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Which president declared that AA had been 'good for America'?
President Clinton
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Was AA intended to have an expiry date?
Yes
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Give evidence to show that America has moved on from racial prejudices
America has a black president
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What is a problem of AA?
In the future it may have prejudicial implications, a person may choose not to use a black doctor as they could have been put into university using AA, and why should a poor coal miner's daughter have less of a chance than Obama's daughter
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In the Bollinger decisions of 2003, how much longer did the SC say AA should last?
Twenty five years
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What type of cabinet did Clinton want in 1992?
One that looked like America
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How many African Americans were there in Congress in 1984?
Twenty one
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In Congress, 1984, where did the African American members sit?
In the HoR
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In 2013 how many African Americans were there in Congress?
Forty two
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Where did the African Americans sit in Congress in 2013?
41 in the HoR and one in the Senate
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What average of Congressmen belong to a minority group now?
One in five
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How many Native Americans currently sit in Congress?
Two
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How many African Americans currently sit in Congress?
Forty six
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How many Hispanics currently sit in Congress?
Thirty two
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How many Asians currently sit in Congress?
Eleven
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How many Hispanics were in Congress in 1984?
Ten
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Who was the first majority-party African American candidate for the presidency?
Shirley Chisholm
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Which party did Shirley Chisholm?
Democrats
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How many delegates did Shirley Chisholm win at her National Party Convention?
One hundred and fifty two
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When did Shirley Chisholm run for presidency?
1972
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Who was the African American candidate that ran for president 1984?
Jesse Jackson
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What party did Jesse Jackson run for in 1984?
The Democrats
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How many votes did Jesse Jackson win in the 1984 Democratic primaries?
Over three million
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Where did Jesse Jackson finish in the Democratic National Convention?
Third
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How many state primaries did Jesse Jackson win in 1984?
Four
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When did Jackson run for the presidency the second time?
1988
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How many state primaries did Jesse Jackson win in 1988?
Ten
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Between 1992 and 2012, what percentage of African Americans gave their vote to the Democratic Party candidate?
Eighty three
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During the period 1992-2012 what percentage of Hispanics gave their vote to the Democrats in the presidential election?
Sixty two
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What was the only year in which Hispanic votes for the Democrat presidential nominee dropped?
2004
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Who ran for President for the Democrats in 2004?
John Kerry
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What percentage of the Hispanic vote did Kerry win in 2004?
Fifty seven
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What percentage of the Hispanic vote did McCain win in 2008?
Thirty one
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What percentage of the Hispanic vote did Mitt Romney win in 2012?
Twenty seven
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Who was the first president to appoint an African American to their cabinet?
Lyndon Johnson
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Who was the African American that Johnson appointed to the cabinet?
Robert Weaver
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What year did Johnson appoint the first African American to cabinet?
1966
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What position was Robert Weaver selected for in the cabinet?
Secretary of Housing and Urban development
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Between 1966 and 2013 how many African Americans have been appointed to head executive departments?
Seventeen
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Who was Secretary of State 2001 to 2005?
African American Colin Powell
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Who succeeded Colin Powell as Secretary of State?
African American Condoleezza Rice
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Who did Obama appoint as his Attorney General in 2009?
African American Eric Holder
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Who did Obama appoint as his Secretary of Transportation in the start of his second term?
African American Anthony Foxx
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Which president had the most racially diverse administration?
Obama
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How many out of 15 executive departments has Obama appointed minority leaders to?
Seven
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Which two Hispanics has Obama appointed to lead his executive departments?
Ken Salazar and Hilda Solis
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Which Chinese Americans has Obama appointed to be the head of his executive departments?
Steven Chu and Gary Locke
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Which Japanese-American did Obama appoint as head of Veterans Affairs?
Eric Shinseki
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Which Lebanese-American did Obama appoint as Transportation executive head?
Ray LaHood
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Which president appointed the first African American to the Supreme Court?
Johnson
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Who was the first ever African American appointed to the Supreme Court?
Thurgood Marshall
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When was the first African American appointed to the Supreme Court?
1967
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Who was the first Italian-American appointed to the Supreme Court?
Antonin Scalia
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Which president appointed the first Italian-American to the Supreme Court?
Reagan
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Throughout Reagan's eight year presidency, what percentage of those he appointed to the federal judiciary were racial minorities?
Less than five per cent
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Throughout Clinton's eight years as president, what percentage of those he appointed to the federal judiciary were from minorities?
Over twenty three per cent
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What percentage of those who George W Bush appointed to the federal judiciary were Hispanics?
Nine per cent
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During his first two years as president, what percentage of those who Obama appointed to the federal judiciary were African-Americans?
27.5%
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During his first two years as president, what percentage of those who Obama appointed to the federal judiciary were Hispanics?
Seven per cent
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How did African Americans originally arrive to the USA?

Back

Through slavery

Card 3

Front

Were Native Americans considered citizens originally?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the greatest fear of the founding fathers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did the founding fathers aim to create through the constitution?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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