Pychopathology

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  • Created by: erin22198
  • Created on: 21-05-16 19:58
explicit social norms are?
clearly set down in society, e.g. laws
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according to the deviation from social norms definition, what is abnormality?
a violation of socially acceptable patterns of behaviour
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outline 3 evaluation points.
1) cross cultural validity -western 2) temporal validity -gay rights 3) eccentric or pathologically abnormal 4) bad thing -antinazis 5)abnormal or criminal
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wha does SOMVUIV stand for?
S- suffering O-observer discomfort M- maladaptiveness V- vivid/unconventional behaviour U- unpredictability I-irrationality V-violation of moral or social behavioural standards
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who came up with SOMVUIV and for which definition?
Rosenhan ans Seligman, Failure to function
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outline 3 evaluation points for failure to function.
1)awareness -schizophrenia 2)crosscultural validity - new age travellers 3)subjective 4)exceptions to the rule -stressed students 5)direction of causality
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which definition of abnormality says that abnormality is the absence of normality?
deviation from ideal mental health
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which researcher came up with PAPERS to support the deviation from ideal mental health explan? what does PAPERS stand for?
MArie Jahoda. P - positive view of self A-ccurate view of reality P-personal autonomy E-environmental mastery R-resistance to stress S-self actualisation
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give 3 eval points for deviation from social norms.
1)cross cultural validity -western ideas 2)how to measure 3)overly demanding
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how does the Statistical infrequency definition define abnormality as?
behaviours that are statistically rare in a population
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what is the mean score of Spielbergs Trait Anxiety Inventory?
40
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give 3 evaluation points for the statistical infrequency definition
1) doesn't allow for desirability -high IQ 2)how much behaviour must deviate to be considered statistically rare 3)the effect of time on behaviour frequency
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what is a phobia?
a disorder in which a fearful anxiety occurs in response to a specific object or situation.
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what are 3 types of phobia?
specific, social and agoraphobia
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outline 2 behavioural characteristics of phobias.
1)panic in the presence of phobic stimulus- screaming etc 2)conscious effort to avoid stimulus 3)reduce ability to conduct everyday life
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outline an emotional characteristics of phobias.
1)unpleasant state of high arousal - unreasonable
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what disorders cognitive characteristics include not being able to look away, irrationality and processing info about the stimulus differently?
phobias
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which of the conditions is an affective mood disorder?
depression
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how much more vulnerable are women to getting depression compared to men?
double
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what are the two types of depression?
bi-polar and uni-polar
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what is the difference between bi-polar and uni-polar?
alternating manic episodes
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outline 3 characteristics of uni-polar depression.
behavioural - loss of energy emotional - loss of enthusiasm cognitive - reduced concentration
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outline 3 characteristics of mania in bi-polar depression
behavioural - high energy emotional - irritability cognitive - irrational thought process
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what are the two key elements of OCD?
obsessions- inappropriate ideas not based in reality that cause anxiety(internal) compulsions - intense and uncontrollable urges to repetitively perform tasks (external)
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outline a behavioural symptom.
1) hindering everyday functioning 2)repetitive behaviours 3)social impairment
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describe the emotional symptom of depression.
extreme anxiety
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give 3 cognitive characteristic of depression.
1)recurrent thoughts 2)recognised as self-generated 3)realisation of inappropriateness 4)attention bias
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what is used to classify OCD?
ICD-10
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what is the concordance rate of OCD (compared to the baseline)
53-87% (compared to 2-3%)
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who found the OCD concordance level?
Miguel et al
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what did Nedstadt find out about OCD prevalence?
first degree relatives have a 9% higher chance
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what is the role of the COMT gene?
regulates dopamine production, one form more common in OCD patients that reduces its activity so higher dopamine levels
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what gene affects serotonin transportation, causing lower levels of it?
HSERT
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OCD has been found in parkinson and tourettes sufferers, what area of the brain does this implicate?
basal ganglia
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what did Max et al suggest reduced OCD symptoms?
surgery disconnecting the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex
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what may be responsible for the compulsions seen in OCD?
Orbital frontal cortex
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what appears to be therein neurotransmitter associated with OCD?
seratonin
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how does serotonin cause OCD?
lack of it = loss of repetition inhibiting mechanism
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levels of what neurotransmitter are abnormally high in OCD patients?
dopamine
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what did Mezies show about OCD patients using brain scans?
OCD patients and 1st degree relatives have reduced grey matter
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what did Thoren et al show?
higher levels of 5-HIAA levels (serotonin metabolite) in OCD patients
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give 3 evaluation points...
1)other explanations 2)treatments don't cure OCD just the symptoms 3)MZ twin studies compared to regular ppl 4)brain scans
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what do SSRI's do to treat OCD?
reduce seratonin reuptake, so it is left in the synapse for longer increasing stimulation to the receiving r
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what type of drug is clomipramine?
tricyclic
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how do BZs work?
1) enhance neurotransmitter GABA activity 2) reacts with GABA receptors 3) opens flow of chloride ions into the neuron 4)makes it harder to stimulate 5) this slows CNS activity, making person more relaxed
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what do SSRI users report rather that symptom cessation?
improvement
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who found CBT and CBT with clomipramine to be the most effective treatment methods?
Foe et al
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who found a 45% relapse rate within 12 weeks of completion?
simpson et al
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outline a downside of drug treatment.
1) temporary solution 2) body can build up tolerances 3)side effects 4)not successful for all patients
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what are the elements of the two process model?
classical and operant conditioning
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who did watson and Raynor study?
Little Albert - fear of a white rat
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define operant conditioning
learning through reinforcement
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define classical conditioning
learning through forming`associations
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how does social learning theory suggest phobias arise?
child imitates behaviour of model (fear response) as they see the reward gotten of it (attention)
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what are the 4 key stages of systematic desensitisation?
1) learning relaxation techniques 2)creating a fear 'hierarchy' 3)working through the hierarchy staying calm using relaxation techniques 4) reaching top of hierarchy and remaining calm
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how does flooding get rid of phobias?
person put in a situation where their phobic stimulus is inescapable, and they cannot leave until their anxiety response ceases
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what did Ohmans electric shock study show?
less shocks were needed to create an anxiety response for fear-relevant images
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what did the study of little albert show?
classical conditioning
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what did DiNardo how about phobias of dogs?
60% suffered can relate their fear to a specific fearful experience
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what model suggests we inherit a genetic vulnerability for some fears, but they won't manifest unless triggered by a life event?
stress-diathesis model
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what are ancient fears?
fears of things which would have been threatening in our evolutionary past
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give 3 eval points for behavioural phobia treatments...
1) need to be able to identify a specific stimulus 2) ethical qualms about causing high anxiety + this causes high drop out rates 3)fast acting and require little effort 4) tip-of-the-iceberg theory - Little Hans 5)little to no side effects
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how successful did McGrath find systematic desensitisation to be?
75%
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what percentage of Shipleys puts found side effects?
0.2%
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what does OPMMS stand for? (depression)
Overgeneralisation Personalisation Magnification Minimisation Selective abstraction
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who came up with the negative triad?
Beck
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when does Beck suggest foundations for depression are laid?
childhood.
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who came up with he ABC explanation?
Ellis
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what are safety seeking behaviours?
behaviours engaged with by individuals using negative schemas which prevent them recognising the irrationality of their thoughts
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who found low level depressed ppts recall happy memories faster than deeply depressed ppts?
Lloyd and Lishman
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what did Hammen et al find?
women with depression made more logical errors about a paragraph on a woman in a difficult situation than non-depressed
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outline 3 evaluation points...
1) direction of causality of irrational thinking 2)gives person power to help themselves 3)may lead to over looking situational aspects 4) helped create CBT - v successful 5) doesn't explain things like schizophrenia 6) less reductionist
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what did alloy et al show?
rose tinted glasses - depressed ppt made more accurate estimates of disaster likelihood
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outline the stages of CBT
1)assessments were issues jointly clarified 2)goals jointly identified + create plan to achieve them 3) identify irrational beliefs 4)challenge these beliefs
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key difference between Beck's and Ellis's CBT?
ellis uses vigorous argument, beck uses "evidence" from them investigating their reality
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what did March find about the effect of CBT and antidepressants?
gad the same effect on adolescents after 36 weeks
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what success rate did ellis claim fr REBT?
90%
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when may medication be needed before CBT?
in severly depressed patients - lack motivation yo participate
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outline a benefit and a negative of CBT
may belittle persons circumstances and demotivate them to change them, very humane way as no invasive drugs
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Card 2

Front

according to the deviation from social norms definition, what is abnormality?

Back

a violation of socially acceptable patterns of behaviour

Card 3

Front

outline 3 evaluation points.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

wha does SOMVUIV stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

who came up with SOMVUIV and for which definition?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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