# PY3 Research Methods

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What is an independent variable?
An event that is directly manipulated by the experimenter in order to test its effect on another variable
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What is a dependent variable?
A measurable outcome of an action on the independent variable
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What is a hypothesis/alternative hypothesis?
A precise and testable statement about the assumed relationship between variables
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What is a null hypothesis?
An assumption that there is no relationship in the population from which a sample is taken with respect to the variables being studied
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What is a directional/one-tailed hypothesis?
A statement which indicates which of the conditions or groups of participants will be higher scoring
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What is a non-directional/two-tailed hypothesis?
A statement which predicts there will be a difference between two conditions or two groups of participants without stating which will be the highest scoring
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What is operationalisation?
Defining a variable in a form that can easily be tested
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What is Independent Measures Design (IMD)?
There are a different set of participants for each condition being tested
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What is Repeated Measures Design (RMD)?
The same set of participants are used for the conditions being tested
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What is Matched Pairs Design (MPD)?
Each participant for the first condition is matched with a different participant (with similar characteristics to themselves) for each condition
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What is the mean?
A statistical or arithmetic average
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Give an advantage of the mean
1) it's the most sensitive measure of the three 2) it takes all the scores into account
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Give a disadvantage of the mean
1) it can be impacted by extreme values therefore making it unrepresentative
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What type of data is the mean used for?
Interval Data
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What is the median?
The middle score after the data is ordered
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Give an advantage of the median
1) it's unaffected by extreme scores therefore more appropriate than the mean where there are extreme scores
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Give a disadvantage of the median
1) it only takes into account the middle one or two values
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What type of data is the median used for?
Ordinal Data
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What is the mode?
The most frequently occurring score
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Give an advantage of the mode
1) it is unaffected by extreme scores
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Give a disadvantage of the mode
1) it can be greatly impacted by the change in one score therefore becoming unrepresentative
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What type of data is the mode used for?
Nominal Data
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What is a dependent variable?

#### Back

A measurable outcome of an action on the independent variable

### Card 3

#### Front

What is a hypothesis/alternative hypothesis?

### Card 4

#### Front

What is a null hypothesis?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is a directional/one-tailed hypothesis?