PY2- Core Studies

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What was the name of the experiment?
Asch's line experiment
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What was the hypothesis of Asch?
People would conform under social pressure
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What were the previous pieces of research conducted before Asch?
Jennes- ambiguous (beans in a jar) Sherif- ambiguous task, (auto kinetic effect). Asch improved on both of these studies by making his task unambiguous; clear right answer in the test.
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What was the context for Asch's experiment?
technology and media began (allowed social influence to take place on a very large scale), Nazi Germany- mass engineering of consent. Asch believed these developments would help scientists to understand and manipulate people's beliefs.
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What was the aim for Asch?
To investigate whether an individual would conform to a group or rely on their statement.
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What research method did Asch use?
Lab expt
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What was the experimental design for Asch?
Independent Groups design
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What was the IV?
Length of the lines
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What was the DV?
The conformity rate
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What were the controlled participant variables?
Age & gender
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What were some of the ethical issues in Asch's expt?
No protection from harm and no informed consent
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What was the sample of the expt?
123 males
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What did the ppts have to do?
They had to match the standard line with one of the lines on test line; comparing.
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How many trials were there?
18 and 12 of those were critical trials (confederates gave the same wrong answer)
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What were factors that Asch used to test against conformity? (variations)
Majority group size, dissenter (partner for the naive- but left halfway), a ppt who came late and had to write down the answers instead.
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What was the average conformity rate? & How many ppts conformed?
37% & 1/3 of ppts
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How many ppts never conformed? & and how many ppts conformed every time?
24% never conformed & 5% conformed every time
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Mistakes were made less than ___ of the time?
1%
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How would you link the results of Asch back to the original aim?
Tendency to conform is powerful influence. Some ppts are able to resit to conformity & after interview ppts said independence more important
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What was Asch's conclusion?
Asch conclusively stated that the tendency from conformity is a powerful influence on bhvr
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What were some of the reasons Asch gave for conformity?
Distortion of perception- informational social influence (some seriously thought their answers wrong&cons right) Go along with group to please rscher & get results they want. Normative influence- general deficiency in themselves.
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What is a strength of Asch's method?
Standardised procedure, IV= group size, DV= conformity levels & control of envn
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What is a weakness of Asch's method?
Low ecolgical validity bc artifical env
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What is a strength of the reliability used is Asch's expt?
Lab expt, standardised procedure, replicable, social influence and objective data.
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What is a weakness of the reliability for Asch?
Perrin and Spencer (1980), not replicable- so poor reliability
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What is a strength of Asch's validity?
simple, unambiguous and a true measure of conformity
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What is a weakness of Asch's validity?
lacks ecological validity, controlled environment
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What is a strength of the ethics for Asch's sample?
Prevented demand characteristics, gained valid and natural results
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What is a weakness of the ethics for Asch's sample?
No protection of ppts, deception, no informed consent, psychological harm, no right to withdraw and might have caused stress,
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Name one alt evidence for Asch?
Sherif (1935)
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What did Sherif (1935) do?
auto-kinetic effect expt, estimate how much light moved, initially tested individually then groups=diff answers/say answers aloud.
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What did Sherif have to say about his results?
Concluded when in an ambiguous situation ppl resort to others for guidance, may want to say right think but lack the right info= informational conformity.
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How did Sherif's study support Asch?
As they both showed high levels of conformity.
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What were the weaknesses of both studies?
lab expts, so very controlled- low ecological validity as both conducted in an artificial environment
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Why did Asch think his study was better than Sherif's?
As asch's study had a much more unambiguous answer, he purposely made it this way bc Sherif's findings could be explained by ppts unaware how to act so go along with the rest of the group.
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Name another alt evidence for Asch?
Zimbardo (1973)- Stanford Prison Expt
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What did Zimbardo (1973) investigate?
investigated how voluntarily people would conform to the roles of guard and prisoner in a role-playing exercise that was inspired by prison life. Interested if brutality reported among guards is bc of aggressive personalities or prison env
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What did Zimbardo (1973) do?
Mock prison (basement of uni), students advertised role play for a fortnight&randomly assigned, after each shift- guards sent home until next shift & rschers observe bhvr- hidden cameras,
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What did Zimbardo (1973) find out?
People will willingly conform to social roles they are expected to play
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What was the hypothesis of Asch?

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People would conform under social pressure

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What were the previous pieces of research conducted before Asch?

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What was the context for Asch's experiment?

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What was the aim for Asch?

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