PY1 - APPROACHES

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 30-10-13 14:55
What are the two assumptions in the biological approach?
1. Behavior is explained by the different areas of the brain. 2. Behavior is explained by Hormones
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What has research shown about different areas of the brain?
That each area has a special function
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What happens if a particular area of the brain has been damaged?
They lose a particular function
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What happens if you damage the Broca's area?
Person wouldn't be able to speak
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What are hormones?
They are chemical Substances that circulate in the blood and only effect target organs
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How are hormones produced?
In large quantities but disappear quickly
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Give an example of a Hormone?
Adrenaline aka 'fight or flight response'
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What was Hans Selye?
A Medical Doctor
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What did Hans Selye notice?
That paitents shared a common set of symptoms regardless of their particular injury or illness
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What Does GAS Stand for?
General Adaptation Syndrome
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Why did GAS stand for this?
1. Body produces General response 2. enables body to cope with extreme stress 3. condition that consists of several different identifiable symptoms
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What are the 3 Stages?
Alarm reaction, Resistance and Exhaustion
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What is the Alarm reaction stage?
Causes the 'fight or flight response'
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What is the Resistance stage?
Keeps the body functioning what appears to be normal but the body is being depleted with resources such as cortisol
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What is the Exhaustion stage?
High blood pressure, System of functioning cannot cope, Immune system can't cope resulting in to a cardiovascular disorder
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What did Hans Selye (1936) do to demonstrate GAS?
Exposed to rats a variety of unpleasant experiences such as cutting their spinal cord
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How does Psychosurgery link in to the biological approach?
The assumption is that mentally disordered behaviour has a physical and biological cause that can be located in the brain
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What is the aim of Psychosurgery?
to alleviate some of the severe symptoms of mental illness by destroying areas of the brain that may cause such behaviour
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What is Prefrontal Lobotomy?
involves destruction of connections to and from the prefontal cortext, by cutting the nerve pathways it is hoped by doing this patients could be relieved of their distressing thought and behaviour
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How did Moniz do Prefrontal Lobotomy?
By drilling a hole on each side of the skull and insert an instrument (looked like an ice-pick) to destroy nerve fibers underneath
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What is Stereotatic Psychosurgery?
Brain Scanning - locates exact points within the brain and sever connections very precisely
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What is Deep Brain Stimulation?
Place wires in a patient's brain. The wires are connected to a battery pack implanted by the chest
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What has research evidence found about psychosurgery?
Comer 2002 - found that lobotomy had a fatality rate of up to 6% and had a range of physical side effects. Cosgrove and Raugh (2001) found that Sterostatic Surgery was effective in 67% of OCD patients. Mayberg et al (2005) found that 4/6 patients
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What are two strengths of the biological approach?
Scientific and Deterministic
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Why are these strengths of the Biological Approach?
1. Allows us to make clear predictions of the world 2. know what pre-determines mental disorders allows us to be able to treat patients
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What are two weakness of the Biological Approach?
1. Reductionist 2. Individual Differences
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Why are these weakness of the Biological approach
1. may prevent us reaching true understanding of why a particular person has the disorder 2. end picture is wrong, wouldn't apply to all people
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What are the two Methodology used by the Biological approach?
Twin Studies and Animal Experiments
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What are the strengths of using twin studies in the biological approach?
1. MZ Twins have the same genes (100%) and can be certain that any difference is due to the environment. 2. Allows psychologist to make sound assumption on importance of Genes
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What are the weakness of using twin studies in the biological approach?
1. Often twins share the same environment 2. Even twins that are reared apart are often brought up in to a similar environment (culture, religion, educational opportunities. etc)
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What is an example of a twin study being used in the Biological approach?
Bouchar & McGue (1981) - looked at concordances rates of intelligent's and found that closer you're related the similar you're intelligence are
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What are the strengths of using Animal studies in the biological approach?
1. will not experience demand characteristics 2.easy to handle 3. experiments that are unethical to humans can be carried out on animals
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What are the weakness of using Animal studies in the biological approach?
1. there are genetic differences (makes generalising difficult) 2. Animals are kept away from natural habitat which might cause them to act in an unnatural way
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What is an example of an Animal study being used in the Biological approach?
Selye (1936)
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What are the two assumptions in the behaviourist approach?
1. Behavior can be explained by Classical Conditioning 2. Behavior can be explained by Operant Conditioning
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What is Classical Conditioning?
When behavior is learnt through association
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What is an example of Classical Conditioning?
Being bitten (Unconditioned stimulus) causes a fear response (Unconditioned response) Presence of dog (Neutral Stimulus) at the same time as being bitten, leads to an association being formed and now when you see dog (CS) a fear response (cr)
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What is Operant conditioning?
behaviour are learnt through reinforcement and punishment
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What is a positive consequence?
increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated
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What is a negative consequence?
decreases the probability that a behavior will be repeated
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What did Bandura believe?
We also learn through observation
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What are the four factors that are in the SLT?
1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation
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What factors consist a likely hood of being of a role model?
Likeable, Same Age, Same Gender, High Status
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What was Bandura Bobo Doll experiment?
36 of both sex's, 3 different groups, watched adult play with doll and then told they could, found boys are more aggressive and more likely to be aggressive if role model was.
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How does Systematic Desensitisation link in with the behaviorist approach?
Classical Conditioning
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What is the aim of Systematic Desensitisation?
To reverse the conditioning of the phobia
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What is the main body in Systematic Desensitisation?
1. Train muscle relaxation techniques 2. Create a hierarchy of fear 3. Client works through hierarchy 4. Client makes choice when to go up 5. Get to the top – fear should be gone
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What did Land and Lazovik (1963) find?
Participants who had a phobia of snakes we're put in 2 groups. The group which received the treatment showed a dramatic drop in fear up to six months later
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What are the two methodology used in the behaviorist approach?
1.Laboratory Experiments with humans 2. .Laboratory Experiments with Animals
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What are two strengths of using a Laboratory Experiments with humans in the behaviorist approach?
1. More controlled - can establish cause and effect relationships, extraneous variables can be controlled 2. Accurate measurements = and standardized collection of data (highly objective)
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What are two weakness of sing a Laboratory Experiments with humans in the behaviorist approach?
1. LOW ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY 2. Demad Characteristics
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What are two strengths of using a Laboratory Experiments with animals in the behaviorist approach?
1. Easier to control 2. Cheaper
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What are two weakness of using a Laboratory Experiments with animals in the behaviorist approach?
1. Animals can't consent 2.not identical to humans
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What are the strengths of the behaviorist approach?
1. Scientific (controls variables) 2. Important contributions ( systematic desnesitation),
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What are the weakness of the behaviorist approach?
1. Behavior is determined by learnt experiences 2. Reductionisim - Behavior is controlled by our environment
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What are the two approaches in the Psycodynamic approach?
1. Behavior is influenced by the three parts of the mind 2. Behavior is influenced by different Levels of Consciousness
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What is the tripartite model?
created by innate biological factors: The ID, The Ego, The Superego
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What is the ID?
present from birth; driven by the pleasure principle; demands immediate satisfacton
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What is the Ego?
appears around the age of two; conscious, rational part of the mind governed by the reality principle - balances conflict
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What is the Super Ego?
appears around the age of four; embodies the child's sense of right and wrong (the ideal self) - develops through identification with parents/adults
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What are the three different level of consciousness?
1.conscious mind: logical and thoughts we are aware off 2. Preconscious: potentially accessible but at the particular moment it's contents are beyond awareness 3. Unconscious mind - cannot be directly accessed- ruled by pleasure seeking&lacks logic
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What happens when there are conflicts between ID, EGO and SUPEREGO?
Creates anxiety and then protects it self by using ego defense mechanisms
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What is Repression?
An example pf a defence mechanisim - allows anxiety-provoking thoughts to be effectively forgotten. Repressed thoughts/emotions often have indirect effects on behaviour which may cause mental disorders
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What did Freud propose about adult personality?
that it develops out of an interaction between innate drives and early life experience
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What are the 5 Stages in the psychosexual development?
1. Oral 2. Anal 3. Phallic 4. Latency 5. Genital
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What happens at the oral stage?
Libido is focused on mouth; age: 0-1 half; pleasure gained from eating and aucking
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What are the outcomes of the oral stage?
Healthy: ability to enjoy food and affection Frustration: pessimistic,aggressive, suspicious Overindulgence - optimistic, gullible, dependent
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What happens at the Anal stage?
Libido focus on ****; age 1 and half - 3; pleasure gained by expelling and/or withholding faeces
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What are the outcomes of the anal stage?
Healthy: ability to deal with authority and reasonably organised Frustration: orderly, obstinate, stingy Overindulgence - messy, defiant,generous
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What happens at the Phalic stage?
Libido focus on Genitals, 3-6, Bous Opedipus Complex, Girl Penis Envy
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What are the outcomes of the Phalic stage?
Healthy- Development of morality Both: reckless,overconfident, problems with sexual idenity
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What happens at the Latency stage?
6-12 - nothing happens
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What happens at the Genital stage?
12 - 16 ; development of independence
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What are the outcomes of the Genital stage?
Healthy Outcome - Development of well - adjusted mature adult
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How does Dream Analysis link in to the Psychodynamic Approach?
mentally disorders behavior is caused by unconscious thoughts and wishes - thoughts have been repressed
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What is the aim of Dream Analysis?
to recover unconscious thougths.emotions that are expressed within dreams so unconscious can be made conscious and conflicts can be dealth with
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What is Condensation?
Dream thoughts are rich in detail but are condensed to the brief images in a dream where one dream image stands for several associations and ideas
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What is Displacement?
Emotional significance of dream object is separated from it's real meaning
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What is representation?
A thought is translated to visual images
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What is Symbolism?
Replaces an action, person or idea to fool the "censor"
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What is Secondary Elaboration?
Unconscious mind collects all the different images and ties them together to form a logical story
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What are two strengths of the psychodynamic approach?
1. Nature and Nurture 2. Reflects the complexity of human behavior
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What are two weakness of the psychodynamic approach?
1. Determinist 2. Claims cannot be proven wrong
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Why are these strengths of the psychodynamic approach?
1. provides a framework for putting the 2 elements together 2. avoids such oversimplification by examining the root causes of heaviour
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Why are these weakness of the psychodynamic approach?
1. Implies that we have no free will 2.A good theory is one that can be tested to see if it's wrong
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What are the two methodology used in the Psychodynamic approach?
1. Case Studies 2. Clinical Interviews
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What are two strengths with using case studies in the psychodynamic approach?
1. Rich picture 2. true to life
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What are two weakness with using case studies in the psychodynamic approach?
1. Generlisation 2. Subjectivity
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What are two strengths with using Clinical Interviews in the psychodynamic approach?
1. Falcilitates communication 2. Rich, qualiative data
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What are two weakness with using Clinical Interviews in the psychodynamic approach?
1. Analysis of the data 2. Subjectivity
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What are the two assumptions in the Cognitive approach?
1. Behaviour can be explained by mental processess 2. Human mind is compared to a computer
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In the congitive approach, What do we do with the information from the world around us?
Processes it to make sense of it, and respond to the world around us
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What are the four main most well studied congnitive process?
PERCEPTON. ATTENTION. MEMORY AND LANAGUAGE
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What is a Schema ?
pockets of information which we use to make sense of the world
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How does the congnitve approah assume Human minds are like computers?
mind takes information in (input) changes it/stores it (process) and then re alls it when needed (output)
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What is the multistore memory?
Information is entered through senses- (sensory input) the brain (sense memory) moves to the short term memory, then long term when needed information is outputted
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What is attrubution?
Process of explaining human behaviour
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Why does Heider describe people as amature scientist?
because they try to understand the cause of people's behaviour
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What are internal Factors?
relate to the person themselves - personality
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What's the fundamental error?
When people prefer to make a disposistional attrubution
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What further theory did Kelly put further?
Covation Model
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Attributioms are caused by covaiance of which three factors
1. Concesus. 2.Consisty 3.Distictivness
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what is Concesus?
everyone agrees
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What is Consisty?
The behaviour is repeated
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What is Distictivness?
How same a person acts to a different stimuli
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External attributions are made when...?
Concesus;Consisty;Distictivness are high
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Internal Attributions are made when...?
;Consisty is high but Concesus and Distictivness are low
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What are the two strenghts of the Cognative approach?
1. Meditation process 2. Sucessful Applications
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What are the two weakness of the Cognative approach?
1. Nature Vs Nurtre 2. Mechanistic&Deterministic
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Why are these strenghts of the Cognative approach?
1.valuable insight on human behaviour(sucesful exam revision) 2. CBT AND KET - helps understand dynamic being human behaviour and improve world we live in
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Why are these weakness of the Cognative approach?
1. ignores key influences such as role of genetics 2. isn't simple as cognitive approach suggest (ignores emotions, social culture etc)
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How does the congitive Behaviour Therapy link in to the cognitive assumption
the key influence on behaviour is how an individual thinks about a situation. the assumption is that mentally disordered behaviour is caused by maladaptive, irrational thinking
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What is the aim of the CBT therapy?
identify and challenge maladaptive thoughts and replace them with positive and constractive thoughts
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What is CBT focus on?
The source of falty assumption
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What is the Cognitive element in CBT?
Maladaptive thoughts and how these can be challanged
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What is the Behaviourist element in CBT?
new behaviour - modelling and rewards
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What problems are dealt with when behaviourist and cognitive are combined?
Symptom subsitution
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What did Becks believe?
Depression occurs because people are biased towards negative interpretations of the world
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What is a disfunctional thought diary?
record negative thoughs; rate how much they nelieve in these thoughs and rate their rational responses - in percentage
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What did Meichenbaurn believe?
cannot change the causes of stress
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What are the three stages of how we think of stress?
1. Learn to see that it can be resolved 2. postive thinking-relaxation 3. practising combining these things together
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What are the methodology used in the Cognitive approach?
1. Lab Experiments 2. Case Studies
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What are the strenghs of using a laboroty experiment in the Cognitive approach?
1. Control 2. Replication
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What are the weakness of using using a laboroty experiement in the Cognitive approach?
1. Ecological validity 2. Demand Characteristics
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What are the strenghs of using Case Studies in the Cognitive Approach?
1. Rare behaviour 2. Qualative Data
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What are the weakness of using Case Studies in the Cognative appraoch?
1. Generalisation 2. Subjectivity
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