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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 19-05-16 15:48
What is psychopharmacology?
Discipline that attempts to systematically study the effects of drugs on behaviour, cognitive functioning and emotion
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Drugs don't affect brain if
they don't cross the blood-brain barrier
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Plants synthesise chemicals for beneficial interactions or discourage preditors
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Share structural properties with mammalian chemical messengers
Exploited by humans- indigenous systems that fit morphine/ cannabis/ nicotine etc
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Amanita muscaria
toadstool that intoxicates flies so toads can catch them
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Used by
Vikings and squirrels as a hallucinogen
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Peyote cactus (mescaline)
Hallucinogen- illegal except for native americans
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Teonanacatt (psilocybin)
another hallucinogen
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how long has Coca leaf (cocaine) been used
Used in south america for 3000 years
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How long has tea been used?
China- 5000 years
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How long has coffee been used
Arabians 1000 years
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How long has alcohol been used
Egypt- Beer 5,500 years ago/ Western Iran- wine- 7000 years
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How long has cannabis been used
4000 years
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Ventral Tegmental Area
encourages behaviour important for survival
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Assessment of need-> VTA-> Releases dopamine in the nucleus accumbens-> reward-> dopamine in prefrontal cortex
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Substance abuse
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Berries that land on ground and rot
Get alcohol and animals have **** up
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Intoxication= fourth drive
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Drug addiction is different
Physiologically to other excessive behaviours
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HIV test
2 tests- highly sensitive then highly specific
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Sensitive test
Will detect all positives but also some false positives
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Specific test
Sift out false positives
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Operant self administration procedure
Rat lever-> lever-> Program circuit-> Infusion pump (and around)
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Can use to predict what substances humans abuse
Stimulants, opiates, dissociative anesthetics etc/ Don't administer antidepressants, tranquillisers etc/ unreliability self administer caffeine and major tranquillizers
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Schedule of reinforcement
produces characteristic pattern of self-administration
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Continuous reinforcement
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Intermittent reinforcement- 2 types of interval schedule
Fixed interval schedule= scalloping behaviour- work hard right before reward/ variable interval schedule- steady rate of response
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Two types of ratio schedule
Fixed ratio schedule- high rate of response until reinforcer is received/ variable ratio schedule= most effective
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Progressive ratio schedule
Reward after fixed number of responses and then increases progressively then stops- see how many times they keep pressing
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Break point
When they give up
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Light every 5 mins- 10 flashes= fix- press lever after light more
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Secondary rewards
determinants of drug abuse
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Lesion of nucleus accumbens
block cocaine and heroin administration
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Card 2


Drugs don't affect brain if


they don't cross the blood-brain barrier

Card 3




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Card 4


Share structural properties with mammalian chemical messengers


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Amanita muscaria


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