Psychopathology evaluation

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Statistical deviation
1. All diagnoses have component of statistical comparison. 2. Cannot be used alone as certain SDs beneficial. 3. Damaging to self-esteem- inds do not benefit from being labelled.
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Deviation from ideal mental health
1. Based on Western ideals but culturally relative. 2. Comprehensive definition. 3. Unrealistically high standard, most abnormal.
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Failure to function adequately
1. Subjective experience considered, cannot measure stress obj. 2. Difference between FFA and DSN? Personal freedom. 3. Subjective diagnosis, helped by GAFS.
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Deviation from social norms
1. Application but always combined. 2. Norms vary with culture and age. 3. Abuse of human rights/control of minority groups.
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Cognitive exps. of depression- Beck (negative triad, negative self schemas and faulty information processing).
1.Grazioli & Terry: cog.vuln. predicts post-natal depression. Cog>dep=cause and effect. 2. Application in CBT- improve QoL. 3. Rarer symptoms not explained.
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Cognitive exps. of depression- Ellis (ABC model).
1. Activating event absent in some cases. 2. Application: CBT, challenge irrational. Lipsky support. 3. Omits rare symptoms, e.g. Cotard syndrome.
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Cognitive treatment of depression (CBT and REBT)
1. Effective (March et al)-81% antidep/CBT, 86% antidep+CBT, so first choice. 2. Severe cases lack concentration or will, also blame. 3. McCusker- poverty/abuse not solved by CBT. 4. Success bc rapport (Rosenzweig et al), important to trust/talk.
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Behavioural exps. of phobias- the two process model (Mowrer- acquisition by CC, maintenance by OC).
1. Bounton evolutionary advantage- reductionist. 2. Motivated by positive feelings of safety, not always anx. reduction. 3. Some develop spontaneously. 4. Application to treatment, highlights imp. of continued exposure.
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Behavioural treatments of phobias- flooding
1. Cost/time effective. 2. Traumatic exp., may not finish treatment/become worse. 3. Social phobias deeper rooted, cog.cause benefits from cog.treatment.
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Behavioural treatments of phobias- systematic desensitisation
1. Gilroy et al at 3 and 33 months SD had reduced anx. 2. Suitable for diverse range, e.g. mental health problems/age. 3. Lower refusal and attrition rates. Favoured bc less stressful.
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Biological exps of OCD- genetic
1. Nestadt 68% MZ twins, 31% DZ share condition, some g basis. 2. Too many candidate genes=little predictive power. 3. Cromer-50% OCD patients suffered trauma, diathesis-stress model.
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Biological exps of OCD- neural
1.Co-morbidity w. depression (also serotonin)- link questionable. 2. Serotonin antideps effective, support involvement. 3. neural abnormalities cause or effect of OCD? 4. Cavedini et al. decision systems involved, other research finds different.
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Biological treatments of OCD (SSRIs, SNRIs and tricyclics).
1. Soomro et al effective- all 17 comparisons SSRIs better. Works for 70%. 2. Cases caused by trauma bio treatment inappropriate. 3. Cost-effective, non-invasive, passive treatment. 4. Unpleasant side effects: indigestion, libido > blood pressure.
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Card 2

Front

1. Based on Western ideals but culturally relative. 2. Comprehensive definition. 3. Unrealistically high standard, most abnormal.

Back

Deviation from ideal mental health

Card 3

Front

1. Subjective experience considered, cannot measure stress obj. 2. Difference between FFA and DSN? Personal freedom. 3. Subjective diagnosis, helped by GAFS.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1. Application but always combined. 2. Norms vary with culture and age. 3. Abuse of human rights/control of minority groups.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1.Grazioli & Terry: cog.vuln. predicts post-natal depression. Cog>dep=cause and effect. 2. Application in CBT- improve QoL. 3. Rarer symptoms not explained.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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