OCD

OCD
A mental condition characterised by obsessions and/or compulsive behaviour
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Behaviour of OCD; Compulsions
Repetitive; compelled to repeat a behaviour =, for example hand washing. Reduce anxiety; to manage anxiety caused by obsessions, a response to obsession that causes anxiety.
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Behaviour of OCD; Avoidance
Reduce anxiety by avoiding situation that could trigger them. Situtation that trigger anxiety. For example, an indivisual may avoid being in contact with germs if they wash their hands constantly as a compulsion.
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Emotions of OCD; Anxiety and Distress
OCD is an unpleasant emotional experience because of the anxiety compulsions and obsessions cause. Obsessive thought cause distress and having the constant urge to repeat compulsions causes anxiety.
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Emotions of OCD; Depression
OCD is accompanied by depression. Anxiety is accompanied with low moods and a lack of enjoyment. Compulsions bring some relief to these feelings.
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Emotions of OCD; Disgust and Guilt
Neagative emotions such as irrational guilt or disgust to themselves or an external stimulus.
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Cognitive of OCD; Obsessive thoughts
Thoughts that occur over an over again; vary from person to person but are always unpleasant. 90% of OCD sufferers has obsessive thoughts as their main feature.
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Cognitive of OCD; Cognitive strtergies
Stratergies created to deal with obsessions; May make a person seem abnormal to others and may hinder daily life. E.g a person may become extremely devout to religion and praying, in order to deal with obsessions.
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Cognitive of OCD; Insight into excessive anxiety
Sufferes are aware their compulsions are irrational; yet obsessions and compulsions are needed for diagnosis. Can help explain why a perosn has such high anxiety.
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Biological Explanation For OCD; Genetic explanation
Genes involved in vulnerabilty of OCD; Lewis et al observed his OCD patienst and, 37% of thier parents ha OCD and 21% of their siblings; passed on to the next gentically vulnerable person.
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Biological Explanation For OCD: Genetics; Candidate gene
Identified genes which create vulnerability to OCD = candidate genes. Some of these are involved in regulating the development of Sertonin. E.g 5HT1-D beta is implicated in the efficency of transporting serotonin across the synapses.
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Biological Explanation For OCD: Genetics; Polygenic gene
Not caused by one gene, but several. Taylor (2013) analysed findings of studies and concluded 230 differnet genes maybe involved. Genes that are associated with Dopamine and Serotonin Neurotransmitters, both that regulate mood.
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Biological Explanation for OCD; Genetics; Different types of OCD
One group of gened may cause OCD in one person but a differnt group may cause a differnt condition in another person. Aetiologically hetergenous; Origin of OCD had different causes. Different OCD,differnt genetic variations. e.g hoarding, religious.
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Biological Explanations for OCD; Neural explanations; Role of Serotonin
Role of the neurotransmitter Serotonin; beleived to regualte mood. Neurotransmitters pass info from one neuron to the other. Low serotonin = normal transmission of mood related info does not take place, mood is affected. low serotonin in brain = OCD?
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Biological Explanation for OCD; Neural explanation; Decision making systems
OCD can be associated with impaired decision making; maybe associated with abnormal functioning of the lateral parts of the frontal lobes of brain. Frontal lobes are responsible for logical thinking and decison making. Parahippocampal gyrus
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Evaluation of Biological Explanation for OCD #1
Supporting evidence; Nestadt et al; reviewd previous twin studies and found a strong concordence rate with identical twins that non when looking at OCD. Validity to biological explanation
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Evaluation of Biological Explanation for OCD #2
There are too many candidate genes involved; little predictive value; several genes appear to be involved and each genetic variation only increases to the description. Not very useful?
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Evaluation of Biological Explanation for OCD #3
There might be environmental factors; biological expalnation is reductionist; Cromer et al; more than half of sufferes have had truama in their past, OCD being severe when sufferer has had more than one truama. Not enteriely biological?
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Evaluation of Biological Explanation #4
Some studies show that the same neural systems function abnormally to cause OCD. However, other studies have shown different brain systems that are involved and how there is no constant system.
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Evaluation for Biological Explanation for OCD #5
Neuraltransmitters in OCD patients do fuction abnormally; this does not mean that is the caus eof OCD. OCD may be causing the abonormalities in the brain.
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Drug Therapy for OCD
Increase or decrease neurotransmitters in the brain; levels or activity. OCD drugs try to increase levels of Seretonin
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Drug Therapy; SSRIs
Antidepressant; Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Serotonin system in brain Serotonin released from presynaptic neuron, travels across synapse. Chemically coveys signal from pre to postsynaptic neuron.Reabsorbed by pre, broken down and reused.
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Drug Therapy; SSRIs #2
preveting reabsorbtion and breakdown of serotonin, SSRIS increase the levels od sertonin and continue to stimulate the postsynaptci neuron; compenstates for what is wrong. Daily dose of Fluoxetine is 20mg, can be increased/decreased on OCD severity.
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SSRIs with other treatments
Drugs and CBT are used togther; drugs reduce emotional symptoms, so patients can engage more with CTB.
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Alternatives to SSRIs
If SSRIs dont work after 4 months, other drugs may be used. Tricyclis; same effect on serotoni system yet have severe side effects. SNRIs; increase serotonin and noradernaline.
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Evalutaion for Drug Therapy #1
Drugs cause side effects; such as indigestion, loss of a sex drive and blurred vision. Tricylics have more serious effects such as erection problems, weight gain and tremors. Reduce effectivness; people may stop taking pills
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Evaluation for Drug Therapy #2
Cost effective and non-disruptive; very cheap in comparison to other treatments; goof value for NHS. Also, non-disruptive to pateint's live; no hard work of psychological therpay
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Evaluation for Drug Therapy #3
Soomro et al; compared placebo to SSRIs, better results for SSRIs than placebo. Decline of symptoms in 70% of only-drug users. Validity/ credability
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Repetitive; compelled to repeat a behaviour =, for example hand washing. Reduce anxiety; to manage anxiety caused by obsessions, a response to obsession that causes anxiety.

Back

Behaviour of OCD; Compulsions

Card 3

Front

Reduce anxiety by avoiding situation that could trigger them. Situtation that trigger anxiety. For example, an indivisual may avoid being in contact with germs if they wash their hands constantly as a compulsion.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

OCD is an unpleasant emotional experience because of the anxiety compulsions and obsessions cause. Obsessive thought cause distress and having the constant urge to repeat compulsions causes anxiety.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

OCD is accompanied by depression. Anxiety is accompanied with low moods and a lack of enjoyment. Compulsions bring some relief to these feelings.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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