Psychopathology- Abnormality

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What are the definitions of Abnormality?
Statistical Infrequency, Deviation from Social Norms, Failure to Function Adequately, and Deviation from Ideal Mental Health.
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What is Statistical Infrequency?
Statistical Infrequency occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic, for example-being more depressed/less intelligent than most of the population.
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Explain the example for Statistical Infrequency (IQ and Intellectual Disability Disorder).
We know that the majority of people's IQ scores will cluster around the average (100), and that fewer people obtain IQs higher/lower than that-normal distribution. 68% of people's IQ ranges from 85-100, people who have an IQ below 70 (2%) 'abnormal'.
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Explain a strength of Statistical Infrequency.
Real-Life Application: RLA in the diagnosis of Intellectual Disability Disorder. All assessments of patients are measured/ compared to statistical norms, so it is a useful part of clinical assessment.
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Explain a limitation of Statistical Infrequency.
Unusual Characteristics such as a high IQ can be positive! 130+ IQ is as unusual as an IQ below 70, but it doesn't need treatment to be classified as normal. Means that SI would never be used alone to make a diagnosis.
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What is Deviation from Social Norms?
Concerns behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in a community/society.
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Explain Anti-Social Personality Disorder (ASPD).
A person with ASPD is impulsive, aggressive and irresponsible. According to the DSM-5, one symptom of ASPD is failure to conform to social norms. Psychopathic behaviour would be considered abnormal in a wide range of cultures.
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Explain a strength of Deviation from Social Norms.
RLA in diagnosis of ASPD. However, other factors like the distress to other people due to ASPD need to be taken into consideration. It is never the sole reason for defining abnormality.
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Explain Cultural Relativism and how it is a limitation for Deviation from Social Norms.
Social norms vary from one generation to another and from one culture/community to another. This creates problems for people from one culture living within another culture group.
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Explain one more limitation of Deviation from Social Norms.
Too much reliance on this explanation can lead to systematic abuse of human rights, may sometimes be used to control certain groups.Some say that some categories of mental disorders are abusing people's rights to be different.
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What is Failure to Function Adequately?
Occurs when someone is unable to cope with ordinary demands of day-to-day living-i.e: unable to maintain basic standards of nutrition/hygiene.
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Explain what Rosenhan and Seligman (1989) proposed.
Proposed signs to determine when someone isn't coping: Experiences severe distress, behaviour becomes irrational/dangerous to themselves/others, no longer conforms to interpersonal rules (eye contact/Personal space).
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Explain a strength of Failure to Function Adequately.
Attempts to include the patient's perspective, although its difficult to assess distress. It captures the experiences of the patient and can be useful criterion for assessing abnormality.
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Explain a limitation of Failure to Function Adequately.
Can be hard to say when someone isn't functioning adequately as it could be deviation from social norms or their personal lifestyle. if we treat these behaviours as 'failures' then it can limt personal freedom and increase discrimination.
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What is Deviation from Ideal Mental Health?
Occurs when someone does not meet a set of criteria for good mental health.
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What was Marie Jahoda's (1958) criteria for good mental health?
No distress, rational and can perceive ourselves accurately, realistic view of the world, good self-esteem/lack of guilt, can successfuly work, love and enjoy our leisure.
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Explain a strength of Deviation from Ideal Mental Health.
Comprehensive definition-broad range of criteria, covers most of the reasons why people would seek mental help. Good tool for thinking about/assessing mental health.
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Explain a limitation of Deviation from Ideal Mental Health.
Unrealistically high standard as very few of us attain all of the criteria, making most of us abnormal. However, it can make it clear what we would need help for (if we were to get it).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Statistical Infrequency?

Back

Statistical Infrequency occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic, for example-being more depressed/less intelligent than most of the population.

Card 3

Front

Explain the example for Statistical Infrequency (IQ and Intellectual Disability Disorder).

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain a strength of Statistical Infrequency.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain a limitation of Statistical Infrequency.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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