Psychopathology

  • Created by: Kim_Hurn
  • Created on: 11-04-18 16:56
What are the 4 Definitions of Abnormality?
Statistical Deviation, Deviation from Social Norms, Failure to Function Adequately, Deviation from Ideal Mental Health.
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What is 'Statistical Deviation'?
Occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic considered unusual.
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What is 'Deviation from Social Norms'?
Behaviour that is different from the accepted standards.
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What is 'Failure to Function Adequately'?
Occurs when someone is unable to cope with ordinary demands of day to day living.
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What are the symptoms of Failing to Function Adequately?
Severe personal distress, irrotational, dangerous, no longer conform to interpersonal rules.
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What is 'Deviation from Ideal Mental Health'?
When someone does not meet a set of criteria for good mental health.
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What is 'good' Mental Health?
No distress, independent, able to reach our potential, good self-esteem, lack guilt, successfully work, rational and perceive ourself accurately.
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What are the Behaviour Characteristics of Phobias?
Panic, avoidance and endurance.
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What are the Emotional Characteristics of Phobias?
Anxiety and emotional responses that are unreasonable.
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What are the Cognitive Characteristics of Phobias?
Irrational beliefs, attention and cognitive distortions.
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What is a Social Phobia?
Fear of humiliation in public places and as a result avoid certain social activity.
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What is Agoraphobia?
Fear of outside or public places and they are afraid of having a panic attack where they do not feel safe and nobody can help them.
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What is a Specific Phobia?
Phobia of an object, body part or situation.
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What did Mowrer propose?
The two way process, stating phobias are acquired by classical conditioning and continue because of operant conditioning.
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How is a phobia maintained by Operant Conditioning?
We avoid a phobic stimulus to escape fear / anxiety, this reduction would then reinforce the avoidance behaviour so the phobia is maintained.
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Who did the Study on Little Albert?
Watson and Rayner.
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What are the 2 ways to Treat Phobias?
Systematic Desensitisation and Flooding.
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What is the process of Systematic Desensitisation?
Gradually reduces phobic anxiety and eventually a new response is learned called 'counter conditioning'.
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What are the 3 steps of Systematic Desensitisation?
1) Create a Anxiety Hierarchy 2) Relaxation 3) Exposure
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What type of Conditioning is Systematic Desensitisation?
Classical Conditioning.
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What is Flooding?
Where a phobic patient is exposed to an extreme form of their phobic stimulus, learning it is harmless.
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What are the Behaviour Characteristics of Depression?
Psychomotor agitation, aggression, self harm, disruption to sleep and eating behaviour, reduced activity levels.
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What are the Emotional Characteristics of Depression?
Lowered mood, anger, lowered self esteem.
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What are the Cognitive Characteristics of Depression?
Absolute thinking, poor concentration, dwelling on the negatives.
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What is Major Depressive Disorder?
Severe but often short term.
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What is Persistent Depressive Disorder?
Long term or reoccurring depression.
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What is Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder?
Childhood temper tantrums.
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What is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder?
Disruption to mood prior to / and during menstruation.
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What are the 3 Stages of Beck's Cognitive Theory when explaining Depression?
1) Faulty Information Processing 2) Negative Self Schema 3) Negative Triad.
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What is Faulty Information Processing?
Attending to the negative aspects of a situation and ignore the positives.
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What is Negative Self Schema?
Interpreting information about ourselves negatively.
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What is the Negative Triad?
Developing dysfunctional views of ourself, regardless of reality...negative view of the world, future and self.
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What are the 3 Stages of Ellis's ABC Model?
A = Activating Event B= Beliefs C= Consequences.
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What are Activating Events?
Irrational thoughts that are triggered by external events.
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What are Beliefs?
Beliefs that life is unfair.
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What is Consequences?
Emotional and behavioural consequences after triggering irrational beliefs.
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How does Beck's Cognitive Therapy Treat Depression?
Identifies automatic thoughts about the world, self and future and then challenges them.
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What does Beck's Cognitive Therapy aim to do?
Helps patients test the reality of their negative beliefs.
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What are the 2 ways to Treat Depression?
Beck's Cognitive Therapy and Ellis's Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.
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What is the aim of Ellis's Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy?
To identify and dispute irrational beliefs, disputes whether theres an actual argument and evidence to support the negative belief and if it logically follows facts.
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What is Ellis's Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy?
ABCDE.
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What do the D and E stand for?
D stands for dispute and E stands for effect.
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What are the Behaviour Characteristics of OCD?
Repetitive compulsions, avoidance and reducing anxiety compulsions.
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What are the Emotional Characteristics of OCD?
Anxiety, distress, guilt and disgust, accompanying depression.
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What are the Cognitive Characteristics of OCD?
Obsessive thoughts, cognitive strategies to deal with obsessions and insight into excessive anxiety.
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Is OCD polygenic?
Yes, OCD is not caused by one single gene but several.
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What did Lewis find in his research?
That out of his OCD patients, 37% had parents with OCD and 21% had siblings suggesting it runs in the family and has genetic vulnerability.
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What did Taylor find in their research?
That 230 genes may be involved in OCD alongside dopamine and serotonin (neurotransmitters).
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What is aetiologically heterogeneous in terms of OCD?
A group of genes causing OCD in one person may be different for another.
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What part of the brain is associated with processing unpleasant emotions, and functions abnormally in OCD.
Parahippocampal gyrus.
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How can you treat OCD?
SSRIs (a type of antidepressant called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)
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How do SSRI's work?
Serotonin is released by presynaptic neurones and travels across a synapse, chemically conveying the signal from the presynaptic neurone where it is broken down and re used. Increases levels in the synapse and continues to stimulate.
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What happens if SSRI's are not effective?
The dose may be increased or combined with another drug.
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What other drugs are used to treat OCD?
Tricyclics (same effect on the serotonin system and is a reserve for patients). SNRIs (increases level of serotonin to other neurotransmitters).
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Card 2

Front

What is 'Statistical Deviation'?

Back

Occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic considered unusual.

Card 3

Front

What is 'Deviation from Social Norms'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is 'Failure to Function Adequately'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the symptoms of Failing to Function Adequately?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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