Psychopathology

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  • Created by: Nicole
  • Created on: 22-05-16 14:33
What are the 4 definitions of abnormality?
Statistical infrequency, deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately, deviation form ideal mental health
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Statistical infrequency
defines abnormality in terms of statistics. behaviour that is rarely seen is abnormal
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Deviation from social norms
abnormality is based on social context. three types of consequences of behaviour
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Failure to function adequately
inability to cope with everyday living. Rosenhan and Seligman proposed signs of failure to cope
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What are Rosenhan and Seligman signs of not being able to cope?
1) no longer conform to interpersonal rules (personal space) 2) they experience personal distress 3) they behave in a way thetas irrational or dangerous
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Deviation from ideal mental health
changing the emphasis, Jahoda's 8 criteria
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Behavioural characteristics of Phobias
Panic/ Avoidance
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Behavioural characteristics of Depression
Activity levels/ Disruption to sleep and eating behaviour
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Behavioural characteristics of OCD
Compulsions/ Avoidance
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Emotional characteristics of Phobias
Anxiety and fear/ Responses are unreasonable
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Emotional characteristics of Depression
Lowered mood/ Anger
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Emotional characteristics of OCD
Anxiety and distress/ Guilt and disgust
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Cognitive characteristics of Phobias
Selective attention to the phobic stimulus/ Irrational beliefs
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Cognitive characteristics of Depression
Poor concentration/ Absolute thinking
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Cognitive characteristics of OCD
Obsessive thoughts/ Insight into excessive anxiety
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What approach can explain and treat phobias?
Behavioural
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How does the behavioural approach explain phobias?
they are learnt through CLASSICAL, maintained through OPERANT- negative reinforcement (TWO-PROCESS MODEL). generalisation of fear to other stimuli. LITTLE ALBERT
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How does the behavioural approach treat phobias?
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION: based on CC (counterconditioning/ reciprocal inhibition). formation of anxiety hierarchy. relaxation practiced at each level of hierarchy. FLOODING: immediate exposure. quick learning through extinction
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What approach can explain and treat depression?
Cognitive
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How does the cognitive approach explain depression?
BECK'S cognitive theory of depression: Faulty info processing. depressed people have negative self-schemas. Negative triad. ELLIS'S ABC model: Activating event, Beliefs, Consequences
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How does the cognitive approach treat depression?
CBT: therapist and patient work together. challenging negative thoughts relating to negative triad. 'patient as scientist'- test reality of irrational beliefs. REBT. Behavioural activation
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What is the negative triad?
Negative view of the world/ Negative view of the future/ Negative view of the self
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What does REBT stand for?
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
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Extended ABC model?
ABCDE- D for Dispute. E for Effect.
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What approach can explain and treat OCD?
Biological
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How does the biological approach explain OCD?
GENETIC: Candidate genes. OCD is polygenic. Different types of OCD/ NEURAL: Lower levels of serotonin lowers mood. decision-making systems in frontal lobes impaired. Parahippocampal gyrus dysfunctional
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How does the biological approach treat OCD?
DRUG THERAPY: changing levels of neurotransmitters. selective serotonin repute inhibitor (SSRIs). Typical dosage- 20mg. Combining SSRIs with CBT. Alternatives to SSRIs: Tricyclics. Alternatives to SSRIs: SNRIs- noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor
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Card 2

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Statistical infrequency

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defines abnormality in terms of statistics. behaviour that is rarely seen is abnormal

Card 3

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Deviation from social norms

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Card 4

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Failure to function adequately

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Card 5

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What are Rosenhan and Seligman signs of not being able to cope?

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