Psychopathology

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  • Created by: Sarahj385
  • Created on: 16-05-16 16:58
Cultural relativism
The view that behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates
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Deviation from social norms
Abnormal behaviour is seen as a deviation from unstated rules about how one ought to behave. Anything that violates these rules is considered abnormal.
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DSM
A list of mental disorders that is used to that is used to diagnose mental disorders. For each disorder a list of clinical characteristics is given.
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Statistical Infrequency
Abnormality is defied as those behaviours that are extremely rare, i.e. any behaviour that is found in very few people is found as abnormal
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Deviation from ideal mental health
Abnormality is defined in terms of mental health, behaviours are associated with competence and happiness. Ideal mental health would include positive attitudes towards the self, resistance to stress and an accurate perception of reality.
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Failure to function adequately
People are judged on their ability to go about daily life. If they can't do this and are also experiencing distress then it is considered a sign of abnormality.
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Depression
A mood disorder where an individual feels sad and/or lacks interest in their usual activities. Further characteristics include irrational negative thoughts, raised or lowered activity levels and difficulties with concentration, sleep and eating
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder where anxiety arises from both obsessions (persistent thoughts) and compulsions (behaviours that are repeated over and over again). Compulsions are a response to obsessions and the person believes compulsions will reduce anxiety.
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Phobias
A group of mental disorders characterised by high levels of anxiety in response to a particular group of stimuli. The anxiety interferes with normal living.
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Classical Conditioning
Learning through association. A neutral stimulus is constantly paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response
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Operant conditioning
Learning through reinforcement or punishment. If a behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence then that behaviour is more likely to occur again in the future.
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Two-process model
A theory that explains the two processes that lead to the development of phobias- they begin through classical conditioning and are maintained through operant conditioning
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Flooding
A form of behavioural therapy used to treat phobias and other anxiety disorders. A client is exposed to (or imagines) an extreme form of the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished.
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Systematic Desensitisation
A form of behavioural therapy used to treat phobias and other anxiety disorders. A client is gradually exposed to (or imagines) the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished.
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ABC model
A cognitive approach to understanding mental disorder, focusing on the effects of irrational beliefs on emotions.
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Negative Triad
A cognitive approach to understanding depression, focusing on how negative expectations (Schema) about the self, world and future lead to depression
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Schema
A cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret information in the brain. A schema helps an individual to make sense of new information
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Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)
A combination of cognitive therapy (a way of changing maladaptive thoughts and beliefs) and behavioural therapy (a way of changing behaviour in response to these thoughts and beliefs)
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Irrational thoughts
Rational thinking is flexible and realistic, where beliefs are based on fact and logic. Irrational thinking is rigid and unrealistic and lacks internal consistency.
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Concordance rate
A measure of genetic similarity (Twins study)
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Dopamine
One of the key neurotransmitters in the brain, with effects on motivation and 'drive'
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Gene
A part of the chromosome of an organism that carries information in the form of DNA
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Neurotransmitters
Chemical substances that play an important part in the workings of the nervous system by transmitting nerve impulses across a synapse.
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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
A neurotransmitter that regulates excitement in the nervous system, thus acting as a natural form of anxiety reducer.
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Noradrenaline
A neurotransmitter found mainly in areas of the brain that are involved in governing autonomic nervous system activity, e.g. blood pressure or heart rate
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Serotonin
A neurotransmitter implicated in many different behaviours and physiological processes, including aggression, eating behaviour, sleep and depression
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Deviation from social norms

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Abnormal behaviour is seen as a deviation from unstated rules about how one ought to behave. Anything that violates these rules is considered abnormal.

Card 3

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DSM

Back

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Card 4

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Statistical Infrequency

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Card 5

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Deviation from ideal mental health

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