Psychopathology

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Who proposed the signs of failing to function adequately?
Rosenham and Seligman (1989)
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What are the signs that someone is failing to function adequately?
When a person no longer conforms to standard interpersonal rules, when a person experiences severe personal distress, and when a person's behaviour becomes irrational or dangerous to themselves or others
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Who suggested that we are in good mental health if we meet certain criteria?
Jahoda (1958)
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What are the criteria that we must meet to be considered to be in good mental health?
We have no symptoms or distress, we are rational and can perceive ourselves accurately, we self-actualise, we can cope with stress, we have a realistic view of the world, we have good self-esteem amd we can successfully work, enjoy our leisure
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Types of behavioural characteristics of phobias
Panic, avoidance and endurance
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Behavioural aspects: Panic
A phobic person may panic in response to the presence of the phobic stimulus. Panic can involve behaviours like crying, screaming or running away
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Behavioural aspects: Avoidance
Sufferers of phobias tend to go to a lot of trouble to avoid it, this can make it hard to go about daily life
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Behavioural aspects: Endurance
A sufferer remains in the presence of the phobic stimulus but continues to experience high levels of anxiety
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Types of emotional characteristics of phobias
Anxiety and emotional responses are unreasonable
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Emotional aspects: Anxiety
Anxiety prevents the sufferer relaxing and makes it very difficult to experience any positive emotion
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Emotional aspects: emotional responses are unreasonable
The emotional responses we experience in relation to phobic stimuli go beyond what is reasonable
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Types of cognitive characteristics of phobias
Selective attention to the phobic stimulus, irrational beliefs and cognitive distortions
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Cognitive aspects: selective attention to the phobic stimulus
If a sufferer can see the phobic stimulus it is hard to look away from it. Keeping our attention on something really dangerous is a good thing as it gives us the best chance of reacting quickly to a threat, but not so useful is the fear is irrational
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Cognitive aspects: irrational beliefs
A phobic may hold irrational beliefs in relation to phobic stimuli
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Cognitive aspects: cognitive distortions
the phobic's perceptions of the phobic stimulus may be distorted. So, for example, an omphalophobic is likely to see belly buttons as ugly and/or disgusting
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Card 2

Front

When a person no longer conforms to standard interpersonal rules, when a person experiences severe personal distress, and when a person's behaviour becomes irrational or dangerous to themselves or others

Back

What are the signs that someone is failing to function adequately?

Card 3

Front

Jahoda (1958)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

We have no symptoms or distress, we are rational and can perceive ourselves accurately, we self-actualise, we can cope with stress, we have a realistic view of the world, we have good self-esteem amd we can successfully work, enjoy our leisure

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Panic, avoidance and endurance

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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