Psychology- Unit 3- Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia, in simple terms, what does it refer too and what are the 3 main symptoms?
It means split in the psyche and disorganized thought process, split between intellect and emotion and split between intellect and external environment.
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Main symptoms?
Auditory hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, control, emotional and volitional changes.
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aud hallucinations?
Person hears noises, usually people speaking to each other or directly to them. False beliefs and can take many forms.
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Examples of forms?
Eg: delusions of grandeur (thinking your god) or persecution (others trying to harm you)
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Thinking?
Thoughts being removed or added (thought insertion, withdrawal or broadcasting)
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emotions?
They are 'flat' and can lack self motivation
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who argued that there was a distinction between symptoms? what was it? examples?
Wing- distinction between primary and secondary symptoms (secondary result from primary) secondary exmaples include dependancy, social withdrawal, unemployment, rejection, no motivation, lack of coping abilities.
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What are the two subtypes of schizophrenia?
Type I and Type II
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What type am I?
Type I contain mostly positive symptoms while type 2 negative symptoms. Positive refers to additional behavior onto normal behavior while negative is a deficit in normal behavior.
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Type I and Type II differences?
Type I responds well to drug treatment while type 2 does not respond as well. Type 1 causes limbic abnormalities while type 2 enlarged ventricles and abnormalities in frontal lobes.
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Problems with these two types?
No distict boundary- more of a spectrum. Also a 3rd type may be present, disorganized, associated with chaotic speech and behaviour.
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Diagnosing schizophrenia- how is it done?
Using the DSM (IVR). A. Characteristic symptoms- 2 or more of the following for a one month period (eg: delusions, hallucinations, catatonic) B. social/occupational dysfunction for a significant period of time C.Duration continuous for at least 6 mo
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How many different types and their names?
5- Paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, residual.
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Paranoid? Catatonic?
preoccupation with more the one delusion and frequent hallucinations. None of disorganized speech or catatonic behavior. Cat- 2 at least (immobilitiy, excess motor activity, mutisim or repetition etc)
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Disorganised? Undifferentiated? Residual?
All of them (disorganised speech, behaviour, flat affect). Un- A symptoms met but not met for any other group. Res- absence of delusions/catatonic/disorganised speech. Symptoms but in a attenuated (reduced) form
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What does the genetic explanation suggest?
That an inherited predisposition is what causes a person to have the symptoms associated with schizophrenia.
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Evidence for this?
Gottesman found that schizeophrenia tends to run in families, and the chances of being diagnoised increased as another family who had it was more closely related (eg:brother)
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Percentages?
MZ twin diagnosed- 48% chance. Grandchild, 5%. Siblings-6%.
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Other evidence?
Percentage is higher in MZ twins then DZ twins, suggested this is because MZ share 100% of their DNA. (46% concordance compared to 14%).
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Another study?
Heston found that children who had been adopted, who had schizo mothers, found incidence of schizophrenia to be 16%.
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Evaluation?
In MZ twins, despite 100% shared DNA, still a relatively high discordance rate. If all genetic, why is this? Also MZ twins have small sample sizes, less valid. Also MZ twins in more similar environment then DZ twins but adoption argues against this.
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What does the dopamine hypothesis state originally?
That excessive dopamine activity in the brain was the cause of the symptoms.
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Evidence?
Drugs that increased dopaminic activity caused schizo-like symptoms. Neuroleptic drugs, which block the dopaminergic neurons, reduced the symptoms.
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Why was this difficult to support? Argued instead?
Post mortem studies did not consistently demonstrate high levels of dopamine in the brain. Instead its now believed to be caused by heightened sensitivity of dopamine receptors in the brain that lead to an abundance of the chemical.
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Evidence?
Post mortem studies found there to be more dopamine receptors in the brain then in normal people. Seeman found 6x the density of D4 receptors in the brain.
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Evaluation?
Lack of cause and effect between increase in receptors and schizo as its arguedf the neuroleptic drugs may cause this as they are attracted to this receptor.
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What about the drugs? (more evaluation)
antispychotic drugs block receptors quickly but it can take much longer for symptoms to subside. also more effective against type 1 then type 2. Aypical antipsychotic drugs seem more effective and block serotonine as well as dopamine, interaction .
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What does structural brain abnormalities theory argue?
That some form of brain disorder causes the abnormality.
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Evidence for type 2?
Andreasen found that they often had low activity in their frontal lobe.
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Evidence for type 1?
Abnormalities in the limbic system and temporal lobes.
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What can this therefore argue?
There is a distinct boundary between the two types, as they are caused by different brain abnormalities.
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Other evidence?
That schizophrenics have enlarged ventricles which may indicate that nearby parts of the brain had not developed fully or wasted away.
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Study?
Suddath- found that in 15 MZ twin pairs, with 1 diagnosed as schizo, the co-twin had a smaller bilateral hippocampus then the twin without it and the twin with had larger ventricles.
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Evaluation (theory + study)
Lack of cause and effect- might be the condition which causes these abnormalities. More realisitic to argue that environmental factors also play a part (diathesis-stress). also not consistent- lewis found no significant link in 18 studies.
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Viral hypothesis?
Peterson found that schizos were more likely to be born in late winter/early spring and therefore in the second trimester of pregnancy the mother more likely to get viral infection (eg influenza). This could cause irreversible brain damage to baby
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Evaluation?
But many people who have these abnormaltities do not develop the disorder (predispositions rather then causes)
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Diathesis-stress model?
suggests that both enviromental and biological factors are at play. Biological factors must be present to cause the condition, acting as a predisposistion, but without the environmental triggers the person will not develop the condition.
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Study?
Tienari- found that children who had been adopted from a schizophrenic mother, were less likely to develop the condition in an adopted household deemed healthy then if deemed disturbed. (0% in healthy, 11% in severely disturbed)
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the ons
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucnatio
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not de
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
T
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
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What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions?
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories when events in the worl
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
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What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
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Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognit
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
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What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
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Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
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Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why sy
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
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What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
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Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
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Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
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What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
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Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
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Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
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What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
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What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
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Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
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Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
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What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
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What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
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What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
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Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
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Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
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What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
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What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
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What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
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What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant beha
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What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
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What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
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What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
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What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
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conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
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Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
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conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
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What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
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conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
172 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
173 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
174 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
175 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
176 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
177 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
178 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
179 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
180 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
181 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
182 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
183 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
184 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
185 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
186 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
187 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
188 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
189 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
190 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
191 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
192 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
193 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
194 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
195 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
196 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
197 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia while o
198 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
199 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
200 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
201 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
202 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
203 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
204 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
205 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
206 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
207 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
208 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
209 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
210 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
211 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
212 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
213 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
214 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
215 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
216 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
217 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
218 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
219 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
220 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
221 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
222 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
223 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
224 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
225 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
226 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
227 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
228 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
229 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
230 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
231 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
232 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
233 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
234 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
235 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
236 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
237 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence,
238 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
239 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
240 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
241 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
242 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
243 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
244 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
245 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
246 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
247 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
248 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
249 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
250 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
251 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
252 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
253 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
254 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
255 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
256 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
257 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
258 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
259 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
260 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
261 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
262 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
263 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
264 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
265 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
266 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
267 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
268 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
269 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
270 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
271 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
272 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
273 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
274 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
275 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
276 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
277 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
278 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
279 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
280 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the oppos
281 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
282 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
283 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
284 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
285 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
286 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
287 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
288 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
289 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
290 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
291 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
292 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
293 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
294 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
295 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
296 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
297 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
298 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
299 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
300 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
301 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
302 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
303 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment
304 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
305 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
306 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
307 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
308 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
309 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
310 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
311 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
312 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
313 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
314 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
315 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
316 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
317 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
318 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
319 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
320 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
321 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
322 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
323 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
324 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
325 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
326 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
327 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one
328 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
329 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
330 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
331 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
332 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
333 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
334 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
335 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
336 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
337 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
338 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
339 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
340 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
341 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
342 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
343 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
344 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
345 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
346 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
347 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
348 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
349 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
350 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
351 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one partner is dominating and other reccessive.
352 of 528
conc
children encouraged to follow this dominant partner which impairs their cognitive and social development.
353 of 528
What is schizophrenia causing?
A way to handle these family conflicts as the par
354 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
355 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
356 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
357 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
358 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
359 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
360 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
361 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
362 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
363 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
364 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
365 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
366 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
367 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
368 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
369 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
370 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
371 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
372 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
373 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
374 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
375 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
376 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
377 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one partner is dominating and other reccessive.
378 of 528
conc
children encouraged to follow this dominant partner which impairs their cognitive and social development.
379 of 528
What is schizophrenia causing?
A way to handle these family conflicts as the parents are causing anxiety for the child
380 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
381 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
382 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
383 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
384 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
385 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
386 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
387 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
388 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
389 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
390 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
391 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
392 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
393 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
394 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
395 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
396 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
397 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
398 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
399 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
400 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
401 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
402 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
403 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one partner is dominating and other reccessive.
404 of 528
conc
children encouraged to follow this dominant partner which impairs their cognitive and social development.
405 of 528
What is schizophrenia causing?
A way to handle these family conflicts as the parents are causing anxiety for the child
406 of 528
what does the expressed emotions explanation suggest?
Schizos who were released were more likely to relapse if returned to their families then if they went to lodging
407 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
408 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
409 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
410 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
411 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
412 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
413 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
414 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
415 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
416 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
417 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
418 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
419 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
420 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
421 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
422 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
423 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
424 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
425 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
426 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
427 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
428 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
429 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
430 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one partner is dominating and other reccessive.
431 of 528
conc
children encouraged to follow this dominant partner which impairs their cognitive and social development.
432 of 528
What is schizophrenia causing?
A way to handle these family conflicts as the parents are causing anxiety for the child
433 of 528
what does the expressed emotions explanation suggest?
Schizos who were released were more likely to relapse if returned to their families then if they went to lodging (Brown)
434 of 528
why?
high face to face contact was could to cause this due to the relatives high emotional over involvement.
435 of 528
what does EOI include?
emotion (positive and negative), h
436 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
437 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
438 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
439 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
440 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
441 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
442 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
443 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
444 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
445 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
446 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
447 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
448 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
449 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
450 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
451 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
452 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
453 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
454 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
455 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
456 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
457 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
458 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
459 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one partner is dominating and other reccessive.
460 of 528
conc
children encouraged to follow this dominant partner which impairs their cognitive and social development.
461 of 528
What is schizophrenia causing?
A way to handle these family conflicts as the parents are causing anxiety for the child
462 of 528
what does the expressed emotions explanation suggest?
Schizos who were released were more likely to relapse if returned to their families then if they went to lodging (Brown)
463 of 528
why?
high face to face contact was could to cause this due to the relatives high emotional over involvement.
464 of 528
what does EOI include?
emotion (positive and negative), hostility and critical comments (both tone and content).
465 of 528
Study?
Bebbington- found that relapse in the high EE families was 5% while in the low families it was 21%
466 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
467 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
468 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
469 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
470 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
471 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
472 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
473 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
474 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
475 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
476 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
477 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
478 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
479 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
480 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
481 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
482 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
483 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
484 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
485 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
486 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
487 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
488 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
489 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one partner is dominating and other reccessive.
490 of 528
conc
children encouraged to follow this dominant partner which impairs their cognitive and social development.
491 of 528
What is schizophrenia causing?
A way to handle these family conflicts as the parents are causing anxiety for the child
492 of 528
what does the expressed emotions explanation suggest?
Schizos who were released were more likely to relapse if returned to their families then if they went to lodging (Brown)
493 of 528
why?
high face to face contact was could to cause this due to the relatives high emotional over involvement.
494 of 528
what does EOI include?
emotion (positive and negative), hostility and critical comments (both tone and content).
495 of 528
Study?
Bebbington- found that relapse in the high EE families was 5% while in the low families it was 21%
496 of 528
evaluation?
Could just be a reaction to their behaviour- if the patients condition deteriorates then the family involement is likely to increase, thus higher EE.
497 of 528
What is the cognitive approach concerned with?
internal mental proccesses occuring in the brain. It is thought that these proccesses can be indeed faulty or biased.
498 of 528
What does Bentall suggest regarding hallucinations?
That they occur when they mistake their own internal mental events for external observable events.
499 of 528
What do Slade and Bentall propose?
The five-factor model which explains the onset of such schizophrenia type symptoms as hallucinations.
500 of 528
What does the model state
1) Stress-induced arousal- the person is stressed so is in a heightened state of arousal thus making it more difficult to decide what is real. 2) Must have a predisposition for it.
501 of 528
conc
3) An enviromental trigger must be present (eg: loud noise), 4) reinforcement- occurs because it brings relief by reducing anxiety thus is repated 5) Expectancy- they only see that they believe to exist.
502 of 528
Evaluation of this specific model?
Argues that sensory loss should make you more suseptible to hallucinations, explaining why older people hallucinate more. But most people with schizo are in their 20s and 73% of these then hallucinate (WHO study).
503 of 528
conc
Its argued that they keep occuring because of that reinforcement stage. But it may not exist as Close and Garety argue that it does not decrease anxiety but rather increase it. But the model is backed up by cross-cultural studies only see what exist.
504 of 528
What does Bentall argue in regard to delusions?
That they are a defence agianst depression and low self-esteem. By saying that other people are to blame , for example losing your job, you remove yourself from the equation and therefore you dont damage your self-esteem
505 of 528
conc
( as differences between real self and ideal self are explained).
506 of 528
What did Mahers argue in regard to delusions? (may need more here)
The anomalous experience model- It argues that they act as mini-theories for unpredictable events. They bring relief because they explain them. Other people then judge these as delusions.
507 of 528
Evaluation of Mahers model?
Argues that cognitive impairment is needed for delusions to occur but many normal people can often have them in abnormal conditions (zimbardo) and other conditions without such impairment have them (Manschreck).
508 of 528
Overall evaluation?
Theory is weak in regards to offering an actual initial cause, just explains why symptoms may occur. Also lacks causal link- these may be caused by condition rather then causing it. Explains some symptoms and not others.
509 of 528
What do the sociocultural explanations refer to?
Looking at the wier social context in which the individual exists.
510 of 528
What is labeling theory?
Szasz argues that schizophrenia does not exist in a sense, we have simply labelled those who do not conform to our social and cultural norms as mentally ill as a form of social control.
511 of 528
What is this called?
Medilisation of madness
512 of 528
What does Scheff argue?
When a person breaks one of the residual rules (deviant behaviour which we might all carry out occasionally eg: talking to lamp-posts) they get labelled as mentally ill. When this happens people accept their new social role and therefore
513 of 528
conc
find it difficult to fit back into society. Therefore it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
514 of 528
Study?
Rosenhan
515 of 528
whats it about?
Took 7 pseudo-patients and got them to all say one symption of auditory hallucinations. 7/8 got diagnosed as schizophrenia . Once disagnosed they began to behave normally but all their actions got interperated as abnormal (eg: writing became
516 of 528
conc
obsessive compulsive writing behavior.
517 of 528
Evaluation of labeling theory?
explains why symptoms are maintained but not their initial cause, ignores genetic evidence, seriously ill patients do exist while this trivializes it.
518 of 528
What did Bateson argue regarding family dysfunction?
That parents were often double bind with their children, they would be saying one thing but their body language and tone said the opposite. Children therefore would not trust their own feelings and perceptions as cant trust others. (Paranoia link)
519 of 528
What does family socialisation theory say?
That families who fail to provide a stable and supportive enviroment and fail to provide appropiate role models cause two abnormal structures
520 of 528
these two?
Scismatic families- conflict between parents causes in conflict for affection of family members so we see a desire to take control and undermine one parent. Other is skewwed where one partner is dominating and other reccessive.
521 of 528
conc
children encouraged to follow this dominant partner which impairs their cognitive and social development.
522 of 528
What is schizophrenia causing?
A way to handle these family conflicts as the parents are causing anxiety for the child
523 of 528
what does the expressed emotions explanation suggest?
Schizos who were released were more likely to relapse if returned to their families then if they went to lodging (Brown)
524 of 528
why?
high face to face contact was could to cause this due to the relatives high emotional over involvement.
525 of 528
what does EOI include?
emotion (positive and negative), hostility and critical comments (both tone and content).
526 of 528
Study?
Bebbington- found that relapse in the high EE families was 5% while in the low families it was 21%
527 of 528
evaluation? (need more)
Could just be a reaction to their behaviour- if the patients condition deteriorates then the family involement is likely to increase, thus higher EE. issue with EE measurement, uses one interview, issues with validity.
528 of 528

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Main symptoms?

Back

Auditory hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, control, emotional and volitional changes.

Card 3

Front

aud hallucinations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Examples of forms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Thinking?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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