Psychology- Unit 2- Social influence.

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  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 14-01-14 19:20
What is arousal? When does it occur?
When a person is aware another person is there, and as a result goes into a state of prepardness. When aroused, the dominant responce is given.
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What is the dominant responce?
The responce which is most likely to be given in a situation, so one which is the most practised or the most sutiable responce. Takes priority over all other ones.
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What is social faciliation? Inhibition?
where the presence of others increases the preformance of the individual at the task. Inhibition is the reversal.
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So how do we achieve social faclilitation?
Arousal, others are there. This causes the dominant responce. If the task is easy/well practisied, the correct DR will be given. This will cause social facliation to occur, increased preformance.
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social inhibition?
Others there, arousal. However, task not practised/hard and therefore incorrect DR. This causes social inhibition and therefore decreased preformance.
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What is coaction an example of? What does it give? What is it?
It gives factor and is when people work on the same task at the same time, alongside each other.
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Case Study of social facliation?
Micheals et al
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Aim?
Investigate the presence of an audience on the performance of average and below pool players
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Method?
Pool players observed from distance. Identified as average or below average based on shots plotted. Observers then made it clear the players were being observed, and their number of balls plotted were recorded.
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results? Conc?
average increased (9), below decreased (11). Demostrated that well practised people social faccliation, while unpractised social inhitibtion.
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Evaluation?
+ ecological validity but ethics about not asking them about participation.
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Critisims of the theory?
Why a person very good at task performs badly in front of an audience. Ignores cogntive factors (eg: people in the audience might be special).
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How to combat first critisim?
Yerkes- Dodson Law- states that there is an optimum arousal, if it is below or above this, then performance is decreased.
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What is evaluation apprehension theory?
Not the presence of others, but the anxiety of being judged which causes the the arousal.
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so how does social faciliation occur?
People present- Fear of being judged (Must be present)- arousal- DR- good DR- Faclitiation
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What is the name of the study?
Henchy & Glass
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Aim?
Investigate whether concern about being evaluated would produce dominant responces.
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Method?
Prefromed tasks. assessed in each condition ; alone, in presence of 2 experts, 2 non-experts, filmed for later viewing by experts.
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Results?
Easy task, increased preformance in 2 and 4. 1 and 3 simular.
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Evaluation?
Subject to stress (ethical).
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Evaluation of the theory?
Animal tests demostrate them being socially faciliated, they dont feel evaulated. But supported by blindfolded experiments. May therefore not be only factor.
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What is distraction-conflict theory?
The presence of other co-actors or n audience divides attention between the task and the said audience/co-actors.
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What are the two effects?
Distraction causes a negative effect BUT is causing arousal. The presence of arousal stmulates dominant responce.
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How does social facilation occur? Inhibition?
It causes faciliation because it causes the CDR to become active. This outweighs the distraction,. But in complex, NCDR & disctraction causes inhibition.
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Study?
Sanders
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Aim?
To investigate if distraction would cause social faciliation in easy tasks and social inhibition in hard.
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Method?
Simple & complex task given. Done alone, in co-action and with co-actor doing diffrent task.
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Results?
More mistakes made on the hard co-action task then the easy one. Did not see a significant diffrence when they completed diffrent tasks (not distracting).
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Evaluation?
Subjectivly regarding what is a difficult task.
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Evaluation of theory?
Exaplains animals & can be applied to any distracting stimulus.
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What is meant by conformity?
Form of social influence where group pressure, real or imaginary, results in a change in behaviour.
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What is needed for it to occur?
A group must be present & pressure
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What is a group? 2 types?
Two or more peeps or share a common goal, membership group, one we belong too, reference group, one composed of people we admire or share a simular goal too but not members of.
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Pressure?
Imagined, not expressed by group directly but in the mind of the person who precieves it. Real, actually exerted by group.
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What is the name of the study which investigates conformity in a unobvious task?
Sherif
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Aim?
To investigate wether people would be influenced by others when the answer was unclear..
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Method?
Used the autokinetic effect and asked for peoples views on light moving. Completrd by themselves many tims then put into groups and asked to estimate in front of the group.
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Results?
The estimates became into a closer range as the answers were given in a group format. The more times the partipants converged in group, more simular answers achieved.
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Conc?
When the answer is unclear, paticipants are influenced by the judgement of others.
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Evaluation?
Didnt show anything new, autokinetic effect had nothing to compare agianst therefore rather subjective.
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Asch study?
Investigates whether people would conform to the judgements of others even though the answer others gave was clearly wrong.
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Method?
Tested in groups, all were confenderants of the investigation, while one was the naive. The stooges asked to give wrong answers when asked to judge the lengh of lines compared to a line already given.
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Results?
0.% in control condition, while 37% were made in experimental. Concluded that people did conform despite knowing the others judgement was wrong.
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How does size of the majority effect conformity?
As size of majority increases, conformity increases up to a point, they found after 3 no more significant increase was seen.
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How does Unanimity?
Remove this, conformity decreases.
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Difficulty?
If the task is easier, less likely to conform.
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Self esteem?
High self esteem causes less conformity.
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What are the two reasons why people conform?
Normative social influence & informational social infulence
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Who came up with both theories?
Deutsch and Gerard.
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What is Normative social influence? Whats it known as? When does it stop?
When people conform because of the powerful need for social approval and acceptance. It is known as compliance and is superficial- when Pressure stops, it does also.
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What does it result in / not result in?
Public agreement but private disagreement.
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What is informational social influence?
Its when people conform because they believe the majority have more knowledge on the subject and therefore know better. Changes both agreements. Known as internalisation. Even when pressure removed therefore, the behaviour is changed as internalised.
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Study regarding whether the need to be right effects conformity?
Baron, Vandello and Brunsman
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Method?
Particpants from a unviersity. Shown a lineup of stooges and were told to match the stooge to the stimulus picture (like in police). One group told very important while others not. Task made difficult via small time limit.(1 second)
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Results?
When task was difficult and important, naive often conformed to the other 2 stooges. (51%) while in non-important conformity was less (35%).
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What about when the task was easy?
More conformity on the less inportant task.
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Reasons for the two conditions? (conculsions).
When more difficult, and we need to be correct, more informational conformity. When task is easy but accuracy less, more normative conformity.
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Evaluation?
deceptions & all students so reduced generalisability.
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What is obidience to authority?
Type of social influence where someone acts in responce to a direct order from authority.
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Name of study into obidience?
Milgrim
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Aim?
To investigate how far people would go obeying authority.
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Method?
40 Men (20-50) paid to participate. One stooge and one naiive. Naiive always selected as the teacher, stooge the learner. Teacher delivers electric shocks to learner when answer is wrong. Increases in voltage. Clearly marked to cause death/serious
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conc
harm at high amounts. If the naive wanted to leave, the scientist (also stooge) had limited phrases to remind them of the importance.
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Results?
Found that 100% went to 300 v and 65% the full amount.
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Evaluation?
MASSIVE ethical issues.
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What are the 5 situational factors effecting obedience?
Proximity of the learner and authority figure. Location, social support and Peer adminisatrating the shock.
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Location?
When the experiment moved from a prectigous univeristy to a inner city bulding, obedience dropped to 48% (from 65%)
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Prox of victim
Victim placed in same room, obedience dropped (40%), when the teacher had to place hand onto shocker (30%).
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Prox of authority figure?
Gave orders via telephone, obedience dropped (21%)
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Social support
2 stooges, 1 naiive. Naiive still gave shocks. 2 stooges dropped out at various, high , voltages. Caused obidience to drop to 10%
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Someone else giving the shock
Jumped up to 93%.
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What are the three reasons people obey?
Personal responsibility, perception of legit authority and legit orders, social norms.
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What is personal responsibility all about?
Following orders lifts personal responsibility and allows for the users to isolate themselves from the consequences of their actions.
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What is this called?
Agentic state.
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What is it called when we have personal responsibility. Describr it?
Autonomous state- we have personal responsibility and feel responsible for consequences of our behaviour.
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Legit authority?
We are socalised to reconise legit authority and we accept that they have the right to tell us what to do.
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Social norms?
This is based upon the idea of social roles and social contracts. People obey because they feel they have entered a contract to follow their orders (eg: been paid) or feel that it is their role in society to follow the leader.
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What did we just look at? What is another explanation?
Situational factors, now we are looking at Dispositional explanations.
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What did Milgrim not think existed?
An obedient personality character.
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What did a questionnaire find existed?
An authoritarian personality.
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What kind of characteristics does someone with this display?
Hostility towards people precieved of lower status, respect for those of higher. Preoccupation with power and blind respect to authority.
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Where does the personality come from?
Harsh parenting, punishment for disobedience.
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Milgrims experiement?
Was found that those who went up to the maximum shocks tended to have authoritarian characters.
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How does this show a link between conformity, personality and obedience.
A person with a authoritarian personality is more likely to conform to their social role. As a result, they will follow orders without question from people of higher status.
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Defiance of authority case study?
Gamson
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Aim?
To investigate whether a group of people would defy a unjust authority.
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Method?
Malicious company sent to get a focus group regarding their thoughts on a petrol station mamager, who was suing the company after being fired for sharing a house with a woman he was not married too.
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conc
Tape was stopped halfway and a man walked in, giving a direct order for them to be more negative in their views.Signed paper to say being used in a trial case.
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Results?
16/33 all of them obeyed, 9 majority rebelled and the rest had a minority rebellion.
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Conc?
Support helps us defy authority
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5 reasons why people defy authority?
Social support, role models, personal experiences (education), questioning motives, loss of freedom.
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3 areas within methodological issues?
External validity, internal validity, ecological validity.
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What is external validity?
Whether the experiement is a true representation of situations outside that of the study.
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Internal? Ecological?
Whether the measurements made in the DV are due to the IV. Whether the experiments results are a true representation of real life.
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3 issues within external validity?
Biast sample, only certian cultures looked at, time period carried out in.
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Biast sample?
Ashe chose all males and all from the same area, Milgrim also chose all males. Reduces generalisability to other genders and people of other areas. However, has been proven by tests females respond in the same way.
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2 diffrent types of cultures?
Individualistic, where we all aim to act as individuals and stand out from the group, collectivist, opposite.
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Effect on methodological issues?
Only conducted in individualistic cultures, would expect it to be diffrent as conformity would occur more often in collectivist. Conformity rate not the same across all cultures therefore.
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Study to demonstrate this?
Chandra found 50% in Fiji, a collectivist culture.
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Time period?
Carried out during the cold war (asch) which means conformity would be high as we would not want to stand out from typical american behaviour. Not true of these times therefore. Lower rates in 1974.
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Ecological validity?
Ash's use of line judging and sheriff of the autokinetic effect both are artifical tasks which removes their ecological validity. But, they aimed to be, to allow for pure conformity to be measured.
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But?
Bickman found similar results in his study, which is conducted in a real life scenario,
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Internal?
Due to it being an experiement, in Asch, many of them claimed not to want to ruin the experiment and therefore demostrated demand characteristics.
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But?
Unlikely, Milgrim, they believed it was a real experiement due to the high strsss levels.
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5 factors effecting ethical issues?
Deception, privacy, debriefing, Protection, informed consent.
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Deception?
Asch they were lied too, milgrim lied too about the reality of the test they were conducting. shouldnt make people do things they dont want to do, and cant know if we dont tell.
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BUT
Needs to be done in order to prevent demand characteristics.
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Privacy?
Bickman conducted his in the real world with unknowing partipants.
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Informed consent?
deception rulled out informed consent, bickman did not tell his partipants they were in it untill the end. But, we can gain presumed consent and can debrief afterwards.
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Protection from harm?
Should leave in the same state of mind. Migrim provided debriefing and counsiling afterwards to help ensure the stress did not cause prolonged harm. 84% said they were glad to participate.
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Card 2

Front

What is the dominant responce?

Back

The responce which is most likely to be given in a situation, so one which is the most practised or the most sutiable responce. Takes priority over all other ones.

Card 3

Front

What is social faciliation? Inhibition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

So how do we achieve social faclilitation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

social inhibition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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mbassi

Milgram*

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