Psychology- Unit 2- Remembering & Forgetting

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  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 22-04-14 15:15
Name of the memory storage one?
Multi-store model of memory
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Descrpition of it?
Model of memory with two distinct stores; a short term store & a long-term store. The model also stages theres a third element, the sensory register, which holds stimuli from enviroment for a brief period of time.
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Sensory register?
The register holds stimuli from our enviroment for a brief period of time.
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What is it defined as?
Modality specific- holds infomation in the same way it is registered.
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What is the time it holds infomation for? What is its capacity?
Half a second & at least nine items.
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What is bad about this time?
Infomation is lost before we are able to measure its full capacity.
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Who found its holding limit via experiments? Where does infomation go?
Sperling. Infomation can be passed into the short term memory via attention or can be lost.
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What is the short term memory?
Holds infomation passed on from the sensory register.
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Capacity of the STM?
Between 5 and nine items- an average of 7 therefore. Proved by Miller in his experiements.
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How can we increase this capacity?
Via chunking- where we group infomation into meaningful wholes therefore making them into a single piece of infomation.
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What does rehearsal do?
Allows for infomation to be retained in the STM then passed into the LTM. via consolidation
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LTM?
Anything we can remember for a period of time lasting from minutes to a lifetime. Indefinate storage capacity. Infomation is held in an organised and meaningful way. Code is abstract/semantic.
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Please secribe the entire model.
Infomation registered into Sensory register. Held in modality-specific manner. Can be lost or passed into the LTM via attention. In the STM, infomation can be held via the rehersal loop, then passed into LM via consolidation. Passed back into STM via
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conc
retrevial. Times are; Sensory receptor half a second, STM 10-20 seconds. LTM- Indefinate, Capacity- nine items , STM, 7+-2, LTM indefinate.
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What is functional speration?
Evidence that the two store are used for diffrent tasks- STM for rehersal and LTM for storage.
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Peterson and Peterson study?
By giving partipants trigrams which they had to recall after varying amounts of times, they found only 10% were recalled after 18 seconds. This was the limit of the STM. Because they were preventing rehersal, because infomation was not being retained
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conc
they concluded that the STM was not used for storage but only for reherseral, while the LTM was used for storage.
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Study into memory?
Baddeley
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Aim?
To invesitgate coding in the STM and the LTM.
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Method?
3 conditions, to learn of a list of acousticly simular words (rain,pain,train), learn of a list of semantically simular words (quick,fask,swift), unrelated words.
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conc
Asked to recall them imediantly (STM) or after 20 minutes (LTM).
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RESULTS?
In the STM, semnanticlly simular words were remembered beteer, while with the LTM, acoustically related words were remembered better.
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Conclusion?
Suggests that in the STM memory code is acoustic, while in the LTM it is semantic.
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Evaluation?
Other studies have also found visual code in the STM. Lack of ecological validity.
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Study into functional seperation of STM and LTM?
Murdock
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Method?
list of Words varying in lengh were presented at intervals of 2 seconds for each word.
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Results?
Found that words at the begining and the end were remembered well, irrespective of the lengh of the list,
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Graph?
Curve with peaks at the start and end, higher peak at the end then at the start.
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What are the two effects called?
Primary effect (better recall at the start), recency effect (better recall at the end)
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Why?
Primary effect- words have been transfered into STM by paying attention. Have been rehersed and passed into LTM via consolidation. I can tell this because there being remembered long after limit of STM.
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Words in the middle?
Have been displaced from the STM and not consolidated into the LTM.
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Recency?
Infomation is held in the StM
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Evaluation points?
proposed that rehersal is key to transfer to LTM. But we often are able to remember things without rehersal. Too simplistic. People with brain damage suggest too simple (eg patients with damaged STM but okay LTM). Lack of ecological validity.
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Name of the next theory?
Levels of proccessing theory of memory
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Three elements of it?
Shallow/stuctural level, intermediate/phonetic level, deep/semantic level.
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What does this theory focus on?
Proccesses rather then structure
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Shallow? Intermediate?
Visual level (eg: physical properties of stimulus), Intermediate- auditory level (sound of stimulus), semantic - meaning of stimulus and connections to other stimulus.
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What is argued about after rehersal?
It is important what is done with the infomation rather then simply whether it is repeated. Stimulus can be proccessed in numerous stages from low level analyse to higher levels. Higher levels provide higher degreses of durability to memory.
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Two types of rehersal?
\maintenance and elaborative.
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Maintenance? Elaborative?
Simple rote repetition, repeating the words how they are presented. Elabortative is analysying the meaning and linking it with other knowledge in the STM.
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Therefore, how can elabortative rehersal best be used?
If the infomation is being proccessed at a great deph (semantic proccessing) combined with elaborative rehersal, we were produce a much more durable memory.
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Case study?
Craik and Tulving
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Method?
Partipants given a list of 60 words and one at a time proccessed each word at diffrent levels.
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Three levels?
Does this word fit into this sentance (deep level), does this word rhyme with (intermediate), is this word in capital letters (shallow)
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Then?
Asked to identify out of the 120 words which were in the original 60 (60 of them are filler words)
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results?
Significantly more word sreconised if proccessed at a deeper level.
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Evaluation?
relies upon the partipants not knowing they were going to be asked to recall them which means it has ecological validity. Also includes disception.
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What is the next type?
Working Memory Model
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Whats it an elaboration of? why?
The multi-store model was too simplistic stating the linear means infomation is stored in the STM. This model emphasises the active nature of the STM.
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What does it consist of?
3 componants for basic, 4 for updated version. 3 componants- Centeral executive,phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketch pad.
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What is the centeral executive?
Oversees the co-ordination of the stores in an attentional control system.
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3 things it does?
Focuses and switches attention, co-ordinates the sub-systems and connects the working memory with the long-term memory.
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What is the visual-spatial scratchpad?
Allows for storage of visual and spactial material.
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Consists of?
Visual componant- deals with objects & features (shape colour), spatial component- deals with locations and movements in space (eg: planning pathways etc)
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Phonological loop
Concerned with auidtory and speech-based infomation.
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Consists of?
Phonological store- holds auditory memory for a few seconds before they fade. Articulatory rehersal proccess (sub-vocal speech)- repeats and extends time infomation is remembered for.
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What 3 areas investigated into have found evidence for the phonological loop?
Simularity of sound, word-lengh effect & articulatory suppression (saying things outloud while rehearsing auditory material)
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What is the episodic buffer?
Binds together infomation from a number of fields. Can be used to access diffrent sub-systems.
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Why was it added?
Three working model had difficulty expalining how infomation was transfered to the LTM & had no method of the sub-systems interacting.
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Evidence? (Positive)
Preforming tasks using the same sub-system causes poor ability. Using diffrent sub-systems is same as if preformed seperatly. Suggests we have a centeral excecutive. Also articulatory suppression.
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Other?
Found patients with normal verbal LTM but weak phonological loop have difficulty learning language. Also diffrent parts of brain responsible for each suggests the sub-systems are seperate.
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Parts of the brain?
Auditory- Wernicke's area & Brocas area.
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Case study?
Hunt
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Method?
Asked to complete a task of gliding a level between two posts using thumb and index finger along side doing a intelligence test with spatial patterns.
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Results?
As the problems became more difficult on the intelligence task preformance deteriated
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Conclusion?
deteriation was due to the Centeral Executive both competiting for the same limited capacity.
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Evaluation?
Lacks ecological vaildity. Argues both use the same C.E but could they both be using the visual-spatial scratchpad instead..?
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Evaluation (Negative)?
Centeral executive is quite vague and not much is known. Much of it comes from scientific tests (lacks ecological vailditiy)
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Evaluation of levels of proccessing? (positive)
More ecologically valid due to uses of incidental rather then intentional learning.
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Negative
Difficulty to identify what level of proccessing occurs in any paticular case because it is circular. For instance, deph of learning is measured by the number of words remembered which is taken as a measure of deph. This is circular because the
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conc
measurement forms part of the definition. Also has recieved critisim its too simplistic eg: found that dependant on the relevance of the proccessing phoentic can be better then semantic.
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Types of long-term memory?
Procedual and declarative
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What is procedual?
skills and habits that we possess and do not call upon the concious memory to complete these skills. We can therefore carry out the task unconciously.
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Declarative?
Explicit tasks that require us to call upon our concious mind.
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Semantic?
Semantic memory relates to factual knowledge that requires no personal experience to know. You dont need to know where you learnt this or when you did for instance.
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How is it organised?
Hierachially organised in a systamatic way, linked to related infomation.
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Study?
Bower
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Methods?
Two groups of participants presented with the same words to learn but shown them diffrently. In one condition, they were organised hierachically while the other was randomly.
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conc
The organised condition has significantly higher recall (73>21) then the random conditioning, suggesting that the organisation faccilitated the long term memory storage so made them easier to remember.
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Evaluation?
Assumed that this infomation was encoded into the semantic memory via the organisation but we cannot tell for sure what proccesses actually took place. Also lacks ecological validity.
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What is episodic memory?
Memories of a specific episode in a persons life. Composed ofthe autobiographical episodic and experimental.
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Autobiographical?
Memory for specific life events that have personal meaning. Experimental- connecting infomation stored in the semantic memory with a specific episode of the proccessing.
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What is a flashbulb memory?
Detailed and vivid memory of an event that is stored after one occassion and lasts a lifetime. Due to emotional arousal making it more vivid.
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Study?
Conway
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Method?
opputunity sample were interviews soon after Mrs.Thatcher resigned and then agian 11 months later. Found that 86% had a accurate memory of the event, so therefore flashbulb memory.
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Evidence for seperate componants of LTM?
HM had his hippocampus removed. He had difficulty proccessing new memories after this(both episoidc and semantic) but could gain new peocedual memories eg: how to play tennis, cerebellum had not been effected.
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What is trace decay?
Infomation that enters the STM leaves a trace in the brain due to excitiation of nerve cells. This will gradually fade away over time unless it is reheresed.
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What did Hebb say it was called? what did he say happens?
Engram- Its very deliciate when its formed and liable to disruption. With learning it gets stronger untill it becomes a permenant engram.
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What did he say it only applied too?
STM- Because when its reheresed it causes a permenant structural change in the brain and is therefore no longer a trace.
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Study?
Norman
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Mrthod?
Repeated methods design- partipants given a list of 16 digits at diffrent rates. Task was to remember the digit before the last digit/probe.
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What would we expect with trace decay?
The ones where the digits are shown the fastest will have the best recall because theres less time for it to decay away.
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But?
No relationship between the speed of which the numbers were presented and the recall.
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Evaluation?
Lacks ecological vailidity but backed up by Keppel and Underwood (interference).
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Evaluation of theory as whole?
Because we need to leave time periods- difficult to isolate any diffrence would be due to trace decay rather then interference. Trace decay does not explain blocked accessablility.
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Displacement theory states?
Due to the limited capacity of the STM, as more infomation is encoded from the sensory receptor- this new infomation displaces the older infomation from the STM.
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Study?
Norman- found that if the probe was at the start then there was reduced recall- placing it at the end increased recall.
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Evaluation?
Working model suggests that the limited capacityi suggested in the multi-model is too simplistic and the store is much larger.
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What does interference theory state?
That factors before, during and after learning can effect how you learn new infomation as well as having an effect on already learnt infomation.
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Two types?
Proactive - Where previously learnt things interfere with things you are trying to learn now. Retroactive- where new things effect recall of earlier material.
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Study?
Underwood- got partipants to learn trigrams and then count backwards. He varied the times they had to count backwards. He found that preformance decreased as trials increased despite all particpants having varying times they counted backwards for.
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Evaluation?
Uses nonsense sylabells and therefore is an artifical task. Also uses scientific method. Low ecological validity. Furthermore its unable to explain loss of memory from the semantic because semantic is more resistant.
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What is lack of consolidation?
Consolidation occurs in the STM when the STM is repeatidly activiated. When the consolidation proccess is interupted infomation cannot be stored for long term access. Can be interupted by a physical trauma.
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Study?
Lynch- interviewd footballers after they suffered a physical trauma. Found they could remember complex plays just after the incident but not 20 minutes later ; had not been consolidated into LTM.
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Evaluation?
ECT- causes memory loss for just before the the concusion but perfect recall is seen 1 hour afterwards.
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Retrival failure?
Memories are not recalled because the needed cues are not present. These cues include enviromental and physical or psychological cues.
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Two types of forgetting?
Context dependant forgetting and state-dependant forgetting
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Study?
Baddley- found that individuals who learnt on land and recalled on land did so better then if they learnt on land then recalled underwater. The converse was also looked at and simular results found. This is because they suffered from context- dependa
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Evaluation?
Usually carried out under extreme conditions so therefore could be considered not valid to everyday life. But explains factors that cant be explained by others (eg: why we can sometimes not recall but the memory is not lost)
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Motivated forgetting?
Painful feelings are repressed and stored in our unconcious to therefore reduce pain. Can bring it back up via acts such as free assosiation.
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Study?
Lloyd
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Method?
Participants required to learn a paired-assosiate list of words. Then had to read another list of words with some of them being related to word B on the paired-assosiate list. The related words were then met with an eletric shock. Found that A BR.
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Evaluation?
Ethical. Evidence from us being poor to remember negative emotional words. But it may be actually arousal which causes it ; high arousal inhibits immediate recall but better in the long term. Explains why 7 days later the emotional words were better
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Card 2

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Descrpition of it?

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Model of memory with two distinct stores; a short term store & a long-term store. The model also stages theres a third element, the sensory register, which holds stimuli from enviroment for a brief period of time.

Card 3

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Sensory register?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What is it defined as?

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Card 5

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What is the time it holds infomation for? What is its capacity?

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