Psychology Unit 2

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What is an aim?
An aim states what the researcher is trying to find out
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What is a null hypothesis?
This is the opposite to an experimental hypothesis and predicts there will be no difference between the IV or DV
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What is a non directional hypothesis?
This is where it predicts a difference between the IV and DV but doesn't say which way it will go
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What is a directional hypothesis?
This is where it predicts the effect the IV will have and the direction the effect will run
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If the research question was "are boys smarter than girls what would the aim, null, non directional and directional hypothesis be?
Aim: To investigate whether boys are smarter than girls Null: There will be no difference between the smartness of boys and girls Non: There will be a difference... Directional: Boys will be smarter than girls
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What is a independent variable (IV)?
This variable is manipulated by the experimenter. This is supposed to have an effect on the DV
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What is a Dependent variable (DV)?
This variable is measured by the experimenter. It depends on the IV
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What is a extraneous variable?
This is not the IV but could effect the results. This is due to environmental factors
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How do changes in work space effect employee's moods? What is the IV, DV and EV
IV:Space DV:Mood EV:The participants could already be in a bad mood
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What is a laboratory experiment and what is a strength and weakness of it?
This experiment is conducted under highly controlled conditions. +No extraneous variables +Increased control and accurate measurement -No ecological validity -Total control over variables is not possible
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What is a field experiment and what is a strength and weakness of it?
This experiment is conducted on the "field" a real life situation. +High in ecological validity +If participants are unaware of the experiment there are no demand characteristics -More time consuming and expensive -It's harder to control the variable
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What is a natural experiment and what is a strength and weakness of it?
In this experiment the IV is not manipulated and everything occurs naturally. +High ecological validity +No demand characteristics -Difficult to replicate -Observer bias
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What is a questionnaire and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A type of self report mthod which consists of a set of questions usually in a highly structured written form. +Many people can be tested +Large amounts of data can be collected -People may lie -They could interpret the questions differently
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What is a interview and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A face to face conversation where you are asked questions. +Detailed info can be obtained +Greater attention to individuals point of view -Time consuming and expensive -Could be affected by the attractiveness of the interviewer
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What is a survey and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A collection of information about individuals attitudes and opinions from a large number of people. +Quick +Allows researcher to study a large number of people -People may lie -It might not represent the whole population
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What is a case study and what is a strength and weakness of it?
An in depth investigation on one person. +In depth knowledge +Unusual instances which could be overlooked in averaged data are preserved -Costs a lot -Time consuming
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What is correlation and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A measure of how strongly two or more variables are related to each other. +Shows a clear link +Helps to compare relationships -Doesn't show cause and effect -Researchers will purposely choose research that supports their hypothesis
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What is opportunity sampling and what is a strength and weakness of it?
The researcher takes a sample of people that are available at the time and fit the criteria they are looking for. +Quick +Cheap -Researcher bias -Participants may decline to take part
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What is volunteer sampling and what is a strength and weakness of it?
Participants become part of a study because they volunteer of respond to an advert. +Cheap +Quick and easy -The volunteers may not represent the whole population
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What is systematic sampling and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A sampling strategy where participants are selected by taking every Nth person from a list. +Because they came up with a system it is less open to bias +Everyone has an equal chance of being included -Maybe bias -If starting point is chosen a pattern
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What is random sampling and what is a strength and weakness of it?
When each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected +Unbiased +Representative of the population -Time consuming -Can be bias
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What is deception and how do you over come it?
When the true nature of the study is hidden from the participants. You can over come it by retrospective consent or presumptive consent
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What is lack of informed consent and how do you over come it?
When the participants are not aware they are taking part in the study. You can over come it by prior general consent, presumptive consent or retrospective consent
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What is lack of protection from harm and how do you over come it?
When participants leave the experiment in a worse physical or psychological state than when they went in. You can overcome it by therapeutic debrief, retrospective consent or counsilling
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What is lack of confidentiality and how do you over come it?
When a participants identity/personal information is made public to the point the participant is identifiable. You can overcome this by therapeutic debrief or retrospective consent
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What is lack of privacy and how do you over come it?
When participants are observed or their personal information is used then publicized in a place that the participants would not expect. You can over come this by retrospective consent or therapeutic debrief
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What is lack of right to withdraw and how do you over come it?
When participants are not given frequent reminders and assurance that they can leave the experiment without repercussions. You can overcome this by retrospective consent or therapeutic debrief
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What is repeated measures and what is a strength and weakness of it?
When you use the same participants in each condition of an experiment. +Fewer participants +Participant variables are kept constant -Order effects -Demand characteristics
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What is matched pairs and what is a strength and weakness of it?
Using similar but different participants in each condition of an experiment. An effort is made to match participants on certain characteristics +No demand characteristics +No order effects -Cant be perfectly matched -More participants are needed
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What is independent groups and what is a strength and weakness of it?
Using different participants for each condition in the experiment. +No order effects +No demand characteristics -Participant variables -More participants are needed
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What is psychosurgery and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A brain surgery used to treat mental health disorders. During the treatment a small part of the brain is cut off or burned. +70% success rate with schizo and anxiety +May work for treating depression -Fixes symptom not the cause - Very invasive
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What is chemotherapy and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A drug therapy that alters the chemical functioning of the brain by affecting the action of neurotransmitters. +High success rate +Control -Side effects -Attacks the symptom not the cause
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What is ECT and what is a strength and weakness of it?
The patient is induced with a convulsive seizure to eliminate the symptoms of mental health illness. +High success rate for depression +Quick -Side effects -Relapse
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What is flooding and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A forced, prolonged exposure to the feared stimulus until they are not scared anymore. +Very quick +Attacks the source -Extremely traumatic -Can be problematic
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What is systematic desensitization and what is a strength and weakness of it?
A hierarchy of anxiety is created then slowly worked through using relaxation techniques to eradicate the fear. +High success rate +Effective when treated with CBT -Some patientd relaps -Slow proccess
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What are the 5 symptoms of phobias?
+A marked and persistant fear that is excessive and undesirable +Recognizing that the fear is excessive or unreasonable +Affects everyday life +When exposed to the phobia they have an anxiety response +Phobic situation is avoided
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What are the 5 symptoms of unipolar depression?
+Markedly decreased interest in most/all activity's +Negative thoughts about the future +Significant change in eating habits +Depressed, sad mood most of the day and feelings of guilt and/or worthlessness +Decreased ability to concentrate or think
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What are the 5 symptoms of schizophrenia?
+Delusions (a false beliefs) +Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things which aren't real) +Disorganized speech +Disorganized behavior +Effective flattening (lack of emotion)
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What are the 5 symptoms of ADHD?
+Fails to pay attention to detail and makes careless mistakes +Forgetful in daily activities and difficulty in organisation +Fidgets, leaves seat often +Talks excessively and struggles to be engaged +Difficulty waiting their turn and interrupts other
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What are the 5 symptoms of bipolar depression?
+At least one episode of mania +Racing thoughts and speech +Elevated self esteem +Depression appears after high +Decreased need for sleep
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What is the definition of deviation from social norms and what is a strength and weakness of it?
When a persons thinking of behavior breaks the rules about what is expected or acceptable in a social situation. +Can help find abnormality's +Can change with the times -Cultural relativism -Role of context
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What is the definition of statistical infrequency and what is a strength and weakness of it?
When a persons thinking or behavior is rare or statistically unusual. +Makes intuitive sense -Time -Not fair (IQ average is 100 and a person with lower than 70 is classed as abnormal but higher than 130 isn't)
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How do schemas lead to stereotypes?
If you observe one incident the creates a schema that is simple and is supported by anything. The more you see that supports/provides evidence for the schema it becomes a stereotype as you begin to ignore inconsistent detail
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What is a schema?
A mental representation of one person,group,place event. For example if I saw a Irish person hit someone I would make a schema that Irish people are violent
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What are the six factors that affect eyewitness testimony?
+Time +Leading questions +Memory and age +Weapon effect +Suggestibility +Emotions
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What is a null hypothesis?

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This is the opposite to an experimental hypothesis and predicts there will be no difference between the IV or DV

Card 3

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What is a non directional hypothesis?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What is a directional hypothesis?

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Card 5

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If the research question was "are boys smarter than girls what would the aim, null, non directional and directional hypothesis be?

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