Biological psychology studies

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SAM
STRESSOR - HYPOTHALAMUS - SYMPATHETIC BRANCH - ADRENAL MEDULLA - ADRENALINE AND NORADRENALINE - FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE
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PAS
STRESSOR - HYPOTHALAMUS - PITUITARY GLAND - ACTH RELEASED - ADRENAL CORTEX - CORTICOSTEROIDS
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Natural Immunity
Primitive system, made up of cells in the blood stream, non-specifically attack and absorb pathogens
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Specific Immunity
based on cells known as lymphocytes, more sophisticated, cells recognise pathogens and create specific anti bodies. Divided into cellular and humoral immunity.
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Cellular immunity
T lymphocytes that grow in thymus gland eg: killer T cells, attack intracellular pathogens
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Humoral immunity
B lymphocytes, grow and mature in bone marrow, secretion of antibodies that attack and destroy extracellular pathogens such as bacteria
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Cohen et al. (1993)
lab experiment, stress index of each ppt created, ppts exposed to common cold, after 7 days the number who had developed clinical colds correlated with stress index
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Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1984)
75 medical students had the NK cell levels measured one month before exams (low stress) and during exams (high stress) Ppts also did questionnaire on negative life events and social isolation, NKcell levels were much lower in high stress periods and
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Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1984)
were even lower in students who reported to have high levels of social isolation
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Segerstrom and Miller (2004)
Meta-analysis of 293 stress studies. 3 types of stressor Acute time limited, brief naturalistic and chronic
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Acute time limited
usually studied under lab conditions, include experiments such as public speaking and mental arithmatic, usually last for about 5-100 munutes. Causes upregulation of natural immunity and an increase in NK cells.
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Brief naturalistic
everyday stressors of limited duration causes a shift from cellular immunity to humoral immunity
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Chronic
long-lasting stressor eg: caring for relatives with dementia, coping with long term illness or long term unemployment. Significant downregulation of immunity
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Evaluation main points of life events
individual differences, dated and androcentric, positive life events, causality and self-report
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Sarason et al. (1978)
Life Experiences Survey - 57 events that participants have to rate in positivity or negativity.
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Holmes and Rahe (1967)
SRRS; social readjustment rating scale. Events are rated on how much readjustment would be needed if they occured. A score of +300 doubled the odds of stress-related health issues
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Kanner et al. (1981)
Daily hassles scale
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Lazarus (1999)
Life also contains positive events or 'uplifts' that counteract the negative effects of daily hassles. Created an uplifts scale such as getting good grades.
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De Longis et al (1982)
compared scores on the hassles scale and a life event scale and found that correlations with health outcomes were greater for hassles scores. Uplifts were unrelated to health outcomes.
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Johansson et al. (1978)
Workplace stress. 14 finishers were stressed, 10 cleaners were not stressed. Stress related hormones measured in urine on work days and rest days and absenteeism. Finishers had more stress hormones and more SRI.
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Johansson et al. (1978)
2 factors towards workplace stress: WORKLOAD - quantitative (too much or too little) qualitative (too difficult/too much responsibility) CONTROL: little influence over company, low control over what you do, low self-esteem
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Karasek (1979)
low control/high demand - high strain. high control/high demand - active job. low control/low demand - passive job. high control/low demand - low strain job
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Dewe (1992)
Work overload is important as a source of stress
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Van der Doef and Maes (1998)
As job control decreases, chances of stress-related illnesses increases. Review of research that concluded that a combination of high job demands and low control is associated with an increased chance of heart disease
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Marmot et al. (1997)
Analysed data from over 7000 ppts, ppts were followed up over 5 years, all were free of heart problems to begin with, 'decision latitude' is very important in workplace stress and illness
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Friedman and Rosenman (1974) procedure
3200 Californian men (age 39-59), categorised as type a, b or x using unstructured interviews. Sample was followed up for 81/2 years to assess lifestyle and health outcomes
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Friedman and Rosenman (1974) findings
257 of the men developed coronary heart disease (70% of the men were type a) the difference between the personalities' outcomes was independent of factors such as smoking or obesity.
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Miller et al (1996)
meta review of finding and found that hostility is a risk factor and is independent of type a behaviour
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The three C's of hardiness
control, commitment and challenge
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Langer and Rodin (1976)
compared two similar wards in a nursing home, one ward was offered freedom of choosing where a plant went and when to watch a film, the other ward were just told where the plant was going etc. Those with choice were happier and less died.
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Kobasa
people with higher levels of hardiness were less likely to suffer SRI. Low population validity as only business men were used. Did questionnaires to assess the 3 C's
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Card 2

Front

STRESSOR - HYPOTHALAMUS - PITUITARY GLAND - ACTH RELEASED - ADRENAL CORTEX - CORTICOSTEROIDS

Back

PAS

Card 3

Front

Primitive system, made up of cells in the blood stream, non-specifically attack and absorb pathogens

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

based on cells known as lymphocytes, more sophisticated, cells recognise pathogens and create specific anti bodies. Divided into cellular and humoral immunity.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

T lymphocytes that grow in thymus gland eg: killer T cells, attack intracellular pathogens

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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