Psychology, Unit 1; Cognitive - Studies

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Watson
Classical Conditioning, The Learning Approach; We are born as a 'blank slate', all we have at birth is the opacity to learn. All behaviour from the environment, focusing of the approach: observable behaviour.
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Milgram (1963)
Validity, Obedience to unjust authority; 40 ♂ Ps were told that they were investigating how punishment affects learning. There were two confederates: an experimenter, and a 'learner'. Fake shocks were administered to the 'learner'. 65% were obedient.
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Hofling et al. (1966)
Validity, Obedience in the real world; Nurses were telephoned by a fake Dr to administer 20mg of Astroten to a patient. 21 out of 22 (95%) obeyed.
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Rank and Jacobsen (1977)
Validity, More Nurses; Nurses were asked to carry out an irregular order. 16 out of 18 (89%) refused.
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Dollard and Miller (1950)
Operant Conditioning; Hunger motivates the infant to find a way to become less uncomfortable. When fed (rewarded), it is re-enforced that the person who fed the infant is the secondary re-enforcer. The infant will attach themselves to this person.
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Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
Operant Conditioning; less than 50% of infants attached to the person who fed, bathed and changed them.
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Orne (1962)
Ethical Issues, Informed consent/Deception/Withdrawal; Observed that people behave in usual ways if they think they're taking part in a psychology experiment.
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Zimbardo et al.
Ethical Issues, Informed consent/Protection from physical and psychological harm; Stanford Prison Experiment.
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Piliavin et al. (1969)
Ethical Issues, Informed consent/Deception/Withdrawal/Protection from physical and psychological harm; investigated the behaviour of bystanders in an emergency situation to see how quickly they would offer help to someone who collapsed.
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Craik and Lockhart.
Ethical Issues, Deception; conducted a study on memory, Ps had to read answer 30 questions ('Yes' or 'No') and later asked to recall as many words as they could.
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Curtiss (1977)
Ethical Issues, Confidentiality; Genie
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Middlemist et al. (1976)
Ethical Issues, Invasion of privacy; Investigated invasion of personal space by conducting a field experiment in a men's urinal.
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Manstead and McCulloch (1981)
Content Analysis; Analysed 170 TV ads to look at gender stereotypes. Women were likely to be portrayed as product users than men.
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Card 2

Front

Validity, Obedience to unjust authority; 40 ♂ Ps were told that they were investigating how punishment affects learning. There were two confederates: an experimenter, and a 'learner'. Fake shocks were administered to the 'learner'. 65% were obedient.

Back

Milgram (1963)

Card 3

Front

Validity, Obedience in the real world; Nurses were telephoned by a fake Dr to administer 20mg of Astroten to a patient. 21 out of 22 (95%) obeyed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Validity, More Nurses; Nurses were asked to carry out an irregular order. 16 out of 18 (89%) refused.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Operant Conditioning; Hunger motivates the infant to find a way to become less uncomfortable. When fed (rewarded), it is re-enforced that the person who fed the infant is the secondary re-enforcer. The infant will attach themselves to this person.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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