Psychology U2

HideShow resource information
DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS
Explicit & implicit rules, social normal: personal space & funeral behaviour, good because we know what 'normal' looks like - easy to identify
1 of 41
LIMITATIONS OF DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS
May be eccentric behaviour, criminals use as excuse, context, changes over time: unless adapt knowledge of current norms we will incorrectly judge, culture and social control - creates stigma creates prejudice and discrimination
2 of 41
FAILURE TO FUNCTION ADEQUATELY
How individuals cope w/ normal daily life, psychologists compare behaviour to standards/norms (GAF scale), good because it is more personal and slightly scientific
3 of 41
Rosenham & Seligman - 7 major features of people who do not function adequately
Personal distress, maladaptive = prevention from achieving life goals, irrationality & incomprehensibility = no good reason why, unpredictability, uncoventional/rare = differs substantially, observer discomfort & violation of moral standards
4 of 41
LIMITATIONS OF FAILURE TO FUNCTION ADEQUATELY
Context, subjective (use of GAF scale), some have disorders but still function adequately (e.g. psychopaths), some do not function adequately but are psychologically normal (e.g. exam stress), culture
5 of 41
DEVIATION FROM IDEAL MENTAL HEALTH (6)
Jahoda created set of characteristics that normal psychologically healthy people show : positive attitudes towards self, self actualisation of potential, resistance to stress, personal autonomy, accurate perception of reality, adapt to environment
6 of 41
STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF DEVIATION FROM IDEA MENTAL HEALTH
Strengths = positive look on mental health, reducing the negative stigma ; weaknesses = ethnocentric - based on mostly white in USA, barriers to self actualisation, culture (individualistic & collectivists), benefits of stress (eustress motivates us)
7 of 41
Biological Approach
Mental disturbance caused by physical causes e.g. infections, genetics, bio chemistry ; good because doesn't blame sufferer, bad because criminals can blame, stigma, takes control away from sufferer, inconclusive research & reductionist
8 of 41
Biological ~ Neurology (brain damage)
Brain is damaged either at birth or later in life, resulting in abnormalities e.g. Lawrie & Aukmeil found that schizophrenics have smaller brain volume & larger ventricles
9 of 41
Biological ~ Biochemistry (neurotransmitters)
Brain works on mix of electrical impulses & N.T, neurons join = synapses - chemicals pass over e.g. levels of N.T vary depending on mental illness ~ depression = low levels or serotin, schizophrenic = high levels of dopamine
10 of 41
Biological ~ Infection
Some illnesses linked to form of bacteria, virus or fungal infection e.g. schizophrenia linked to mother catching flu in pregnancy - lies dormant in child until reach puberty and then releases shizophrenic symptoms, syphillis cause brain damage
11 of 41
Biological ~ Genetics
Many psychological problems run in family e.g. Gottesman found concordance rates of schizophrenia in monozygotic twins = 48% and in dizygotic twins = 17%
12 of 41
Biological Treatments ~ Electroconvulsive Therapy
Changes N.T, treats drug resistant depressive disorders, 2 types: bilateral and unilateral (stimulates non-dominant hemisphere), given anaesthetic & muscle relaxants, 13-70v for 0.5s, NT levels change during seizure of 5m
13 of 41
ECT Evaluation
Good because effective & useful for 20% & only used as alternative, bad because reoccurance of symptoms is high (after 2 yrs 20-30%), unsure why it works & has potential side effects
14 of 41
Biological Treatments ~ Drug Therapy
Chemical compounds chance the functioning of nervous systems, affect transmission of chemicals that control behaviour (treats depression etc), 2 types agonist (anti depressants - increases serotin) and antagonist (anxiolytics)
15 of 41
Drug Therapy Evaluation
Good because 80% success rate, relatively cheap, quick & easy, helps patient take responsibility ; bad because possible placebo affect, side effects in general, only treats the symptoms
16 of 41
Biological Treatments ~ Psycho Surgery
Remove specific parts of brain, treats schizophrenic patients & hyper children in U.S, modern = detailed images & lesion affected area (good because last resort ; bad because permanent & used in past as form of social control, unwanted damage)
17 of 41
Psychodynamic Approach
Behaviour is driven by unconscious motives, childhood = crucial period in development, mental illnesses arise from unresolved conflicts, good because influential ; bad because unscientific, no evidence, unfalsifiable, retrospective data
18 of 41
P.D Approach ~ The Human Psyche (dynamics of personality)
EGO maintains balance between ID & S.E (conscious rational part, develops through childhood), ID = innate personality we are born with (pleasure orientated, self gratification), S.E = conscience concerned with rights & wrongs (moral part)
19 of 41
P.D Approach ~ Defence Mechanisms
Displacement (e.g. self harm & slamming doors), denial (e.g. abusive relationship or eating disorder), repression (e.g. phobias), projection (e.g. insecurities or gossiping), sublimation (e.g. sports/exercise), regression (e.g. throw tantrums)
20 of 41
P.D Approach ~ Dream Analysis (Treatment - Psychoanalysis)
Ego's defences = low so repressed material comes through in distorted form, freud distinguishes between manifest & latent content & symbolic meaning, secondary elaboration = string images, displacement, condensation = join 2 or more ideas into 1
21 of 41
P.D Approach ~ Free Association (Treatment - Psychoanalysis)
Solve inner conflicts, help patients learn more about own thoughts & feelings, once found repressed/ignored feelings or thoughts = manage & change behaviour
22 of 41
P.D Approach ~ Transference (Treatment - Psychoanalysis)
The redirection of feelings & desires, especially those unconsciously retained from childhood, towards new object(s) - analyst & patient form intimate relationship
23 of 41
P.D Approach ~ Psychoanalysis evaluation
Good because form relationship with patient so get to know their illness better ; bad because time consuming, expensive, only suitable for limited range, mixed findings on effectiveness, therapist has the power, focuses on the past
24 of 41
Behavioural Approach
Behaviour = learnt through conditoning and modelling, what is learnt can be unlearnt - good because avoids stigma, focuses on functioning & practical ; bad because reductionist, blames individual & ignores biological
25 of 41
Classical conditioning
Learning by association when 2 stimuli occur together (E.G. IVAN PAVLOV & WATSON ET AL)
26 of 41
Operant conditioning
Learning from consequences of behaviour
27 of 41
Positive reinforcement
Getting something pleasant for positive behaviour, makes behaviour more likely to be repeated e.g. getting stickers at school / golden time
28 of 41
Negative reinforcement
Avoiding something negative which is a reward in itself e.g phobia of dog, increased likelihood of repeating
29 of 41
Punishment
Giving something unpleasant or removing something pleasant due to bad or inappropriate behaviour e.g parent taking away child's phone
30 of 41
Social Learning Theory
Learn much of how we behave by watching others & copying (modelling) behaviour - most likely to be copied if positive reinforcement (E.G. BOBO DOLL STUDY BY BANDURA)
31 of 41
Behavioural Approach ~ system desensitisation aims to...
replace undesirable behaviour with a more desirable one also known as reciprocal inhibition = replacing current emotional respons w/ one that in incompatible e.g. fear & relaxation
32 of 41
Behavioural Approach ~ system desensitisation steps & evaluation
1 = relaxation, 2 = hierarchy of fear, 3 = reciprocal inhibition (cured when can face most anxiety producing situation but remain calm) - good because supported by research & used by NHS, flooding and implosion ; bad because relies on imagination
33 of 41
Behavioural Approach ~ Aversion Therapy
Treats addictive behaviours (e.g. alcoholics), approach w/ unpleasant thing e.g. drug when mixed with alcohol makes vomit - good because if successful has LT effects ; bad because unethical, clients may return to behaviours & use in past
34 of 41
Behavioural Approach ~ Behaviour Modification
Token economics - operant conditioning, clients use reward system - earn tokens for good behaviour exchanged for things they want/like - good because positive effects are supported by research & used in hospitals & school ; bad because unethical etc.
35 of 41
Cognitive Approach {Aaron Beck}
Abnormality = result of faulty cognition, the way you think about the problem rather than problem itself, need to think positively & rationally - good because supported & all M.I have it ; bad because why? causes or symptom?
36 of 41
Faulty/Irrational thinking
Polarised (extreme ways, always - or +) over generalised (all the same e.g. fail mock = fail all), S.O.M (set goals too high or low e.g. get all A*'s), catastrophising (make worst out all situations)
37 of 41
Cognitive Triad
Form of therapy - highlight all positive aspects, change all automatic negative thoughts to positive, focus on positive aspects of world & future, Beck's depression inventory: identifies thinking about selves so change
38 of 41
Errors In Logic
Misinterpret situations due to irrational thinking so come to faulty conclusions on how to act and think
39 of 41
Cog. Approach ~ treatments (cognitive behavioural therapy)
Combines cognitive & behavioural model ~ identify thinking processes do not challenge directly & set h/w tasks to help client challenge beliefs (client identifies own) ; aims = get client to challenge selves & show they are wrong
40 of 41
Cog. Approach ~ treatments ; rational-emotive-behavioural-therapy
Based on the ABC model (actuating event, belief of the event & consequence) e.g. dog phobia - good because; suitable for wide range, treats most, costs less, LT solution, client has power, less relapse ; bad because client has to be motivated, drugs
41 of 41

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

May be eccentric behaviour, criminals use as excuse, context, changes over time: unless adapt knowledge of current norms we will incorrectly judge, culture and social control - creates stigma creates prejudice and discrimination

Back

LIMITATIONS OF DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS

Card 3

Front

How individuals cope w/ normal daily life, psychologists compare behaviour to standards/norms (GAF scale), good because it is more personal and slightly scientific

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Personal distress, maladaptive = prevention from achieving life goals, irrationality & incomprehensibility = no good reason why, unpredictability, uncoventional/rare = differs substantially, observer discomfort & violation of moral standards

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Context, subjective (use of GAF scale), some have disorders but still function adequately (e.g. psychopaths), some do not function adequately but are psychologically normal (e.g. exam stress), culture

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Abnormality resources »