Psychology - U1

The process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved
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Who devised the Multi Store Memory Model?
Atkinson & Shiffrin in 1968
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Multi Store Memory Model
3 seperate memory stores: sensory, STM & LTM, flow of info = sequential, STM & LTM = unity stores, rehearsal is only means of transferring info from STM - LTM
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How much info can be held at a give time, capacity differs depending on the memory store
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How long an amount of info can be held in a specific memory store
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How we make sense of information (either acoustic, semantic, verbal)
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What is the sensory memory's capacity, duration and preferred method of encoding?
It has unlimited capacity, a duration of brief periods and can use all types of encoding
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What is the STM's capacity, duration and preferred method of encoding?
Has a capacity of 5-9 items (magic number 7 + or - 2), has a duration of less than 30 seconds and prefers encoding acoustically
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What is the LTM's capacity, duration and preferred method of encoding?
Has an unlimited capacity, can hold information potentially forever, prefers semantic enconding
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Outline the Working Memory Model's process
External stimuli enters the sensory memory (info can be lost through decay), if pay attention to info = enters STM (stays if maintenance rehearsal, info lost through decay/displacement), if rehearsed enough - enters LTM (info lost decay/interferance)
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Atkinson & Shiffrin believed we have a different sensory store for each sense (3) :
Iconic (visual), echoic (auditory) and haptic (tactive)
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Sperling's study of the iconic store
Used tachistoscope - flashed image on screen for brief moment - remember letters and numbers from grid of 12, in 1/20th s remember specific line (3/4secs 75%), then had time delay - the longer the delay the less info recalled (0.35s = 50%, 1s = 33%)
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Sperling's conclusion
Duration is the sensory memory's major weakness
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(STM capacity study) Jacobs
Read out lists of letters and numbers (1 syllable), increased length of list until only 50% recalled, concluded that STM has a limited capacity of 5-9 items
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(STM capacity study) Miller
Replicated Jacobs and got similar results, "magic number 7 plus or minus 2", stated that recall can be increased by chunking
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(STM encoding study) Brandimonte et al
When an acoustic task is prevented by a concurrent talking task participants substitute with visual
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(STM encoding study) Conrad
Random lists of 6 consonants that were acoustically similar or acoustically distinct, write down in order, participants made more errors with acoustically similar consonants even when visually presented
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(STM encoding) Baddeley *
4 lists of words that were acoustically similar/distinct or semantically similar/distinct, 4 words long and immediately recalled, if words sounded the same = hard, whether semantically similar or not had no affect
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(STM duration study) Peterson & Peterson
Used trigrams - asked participants to count backwards in 3's from a given number then asked to recall trigrams (had time delays 3-18s), after a 3 s time delay 80% recalled, after 18 s less than 10%, concluded = info rapidly decays if no rehearsal
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No studies on capacity of LTM because...
it is hard to quantify capacity because our thinking is unlimited and so vast that the information store is organised
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(LTM duration study) Bahrick et all - year book study
392 graduates who left school 1-50 yrs ago, either given names (r.condition) or asked to name in pictures (f.recall), r.condition = 60%, f.recall = 20%, concluded that we remember info for long periods, key strength = ecological validity
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Ecological Validity
means that the methods, materials and setting reflects the real-world that is being examined
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(LTM encoding study) Baddeley *
4 lists of words that were acoustically similar/distinct or semantically similar/distinct, 10 words and recalled after 20 mins, made more errors with semantically similar than distinct and acoustic had little affect
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Who devised the Working Memory Model?
Baddeley and Hitch 1974 ; devised after challenging the MSM's assumption that STM is a unitary store
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What does the Central Executive do in the Working Memory Model?
It is the most important component, involved in higher mental processes (decisions - decides what system info should go to), has a limited capacity
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What does the Phonological Loop do in the Working Memory Model?
2 components: articulatory loop which has verbal rehearsal loop & deals w/ speech production, has limited capacity - phonological store which stores acoustically coded information for limited time
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What does the Visuospatial Sketchpad do in the Working Memory Model?
Deals w/ visual and spacial info, involved in moment and action, has a limited capacity
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What did Logie propose about the V.S.S?
Said it was divided into a visual cache and an inner scribe
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What does the Episodic Buffer do in the Working Memory Model?
Added in 2000 after observing amnesiacs who couldn't form LT memories but could recall complicated stories from STM which suggested the presence of a more general store, integrates and holds visual and acoustic info, limited capacity
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Research Evidence for the Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch)
Dual-task study, asked participants to recite a list of 6 digits aloud whilst simultaneously checking sentences (reasoning task)
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Strengths of the Working Memory Model
It accounts for out ability to temporarily store info whilst processing other info, dual task provides empirical evidence for existence of sub-components that work independently
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Weaknesses of the Working Memory Model
It is not comprehensive - only focuses on STM, insufficient info about the central executive eventhough it is 'most important', it is difficult to quantify experimentally as can be used to explain any experimental results
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Eye Witness Testimony
Evidence given by somebody who has seen an incident or crime, EWT's can lead to wrongful convictions
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Wells et all - 1998 study
Cited 40 people in American who were wrongly convicted on basis of EWT's, 5/40 were on deathrow
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Bartlett (reconstructive memory)
The idea that when we store info we don't store an exact replica, we only store the general idea of the info and when recalling info we reconstruct it to fit with past experiences
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Mental frameworks based on past within which we organise info and store memories - they help reconstruct info but inaccuracies and distortions can exist
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Anxiety & EWT Study (Deffenbacher et al)
Found relationship w/ accuracy & stress levels - both increase but up to optimal point - accuracy then decreases, yerkes dodson law states if arousal too high/low performance = poor but moderate arousal levels = optimal performance
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Deffenbachers conclusion
Witnessing real violent crime leads to high levels of anxiety and if highly anxious we are less likely to recall details of an event
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Anxiety & EWT study (Peters - innoculation study)
Participants attending clinics for innoculation - spent time w/ researcher and nurse, 1 week later - asked to indentify nurse & researcher, identified researcher easily - suggesting high levels of anxiety led to poor recall of nurse
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Limitations of Peters innoculation study
Participants spoke to researcher more so able to recognise easier, used researcher to take mind off event, weapon focus
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Age & EWT studies (child)
Children more willing to identify but identify wrong person, if context is reinstated then accuracy is as good as adults, if children saw theft they had better recall
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Age & EWT studies (eldery/older adults)
17-25 yr olds give more accurate info about robbery than 65-85, in staged stabbing event 80% of elderly did not mention knife compared w/ 20% of young
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How does misleading information affect EWT's?
Memory of events is subject to distortions when supplemented by misleading post event information
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Misleading information study (Loftus 1975)
Car accident video - group 1 asked consistent questions & group 2 asked inconsistent questions, later asked "did you see a barn" ~ 2.7% of 1 said yes compared w/ 17.3% from 2
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EWT & leading questions (e.g. did you see the fight in the corridor?)
Loftus & Palmer - looked at affect of LQ's on estimates of car speeds using clips - group 1 asked how fast when smashed, group 2 asked how fast when contacted - smashed said 40mph and contacted said 30mph ~ change of verb = diff interpretations
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Cognitive Interview
Devised by Fisher & Geiselman - technique used for improving recall in EWT
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4 techniques in cog. interview = report everything, reinstate context, change order and change perspective (explain)
R.E = even if trivial it may act as a trigger for key info, R.C = try to mentally reinstate environmental & personal context, C.O = recount in diff narrative order, C.P = report from different point of view
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Cognitive Interview studies
41.15 correctly recalled when cog. interview used compared with 29.4, Fisher et al trained police use both interviews and 47% correct, Kebell & Milne surveyed police = cog. interview gains lots of incorrect info and is less practical
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General weaknessed of the Cognitive Interview
Lacks practicality as it costs money and is time consuming
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Memory Improvement - Categories
Deese ~ group 1 had words relating to starting words and 2 has unrelated words, in 7.35 recalled and 5.5 in 2 / Tulving et al ~ when told category names - recall more words
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Memory Improvement - Loci
A visual memory technique - imagine familiar walk, note various locations on way and create a mental image, relate items that need remembering to particular locations, more bizarre = more easy to remember
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Memory Improvement - Pegword Mnemonic
Visual imagery, rhyme and rhythm - use numbers as memory triggers and associate with particular item that needs remembering - learn the rhyme and visualise the items interacting together
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Research Methods - PERRVG
Practicality = suitable, cost, easy, time - Ethical = cause harm, humane - Representative = use wide range to reflect target pop. - Reliable = dependable, if repeated similar results, Validity = E.V - Generalisations = assumptions made based on study
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Research Methods - null & alternative hypothesis
States there will be o no difference, predicts there will be a difference
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Research Methods - directional & non-directional hypothesis
1 tailed - there will be a difference and states what the difference will be, 2 tailed - will be a difference and doesn't state what the difference will be
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Independent Variable
What the researcher is changing
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Dependent Variable
What the researcher is measuring
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Confound Variable
Anything other than the independent variable that affects the dependent variable
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Extraneous Variable
Anything that might affect the dependent variable if not controlled
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Research Design ~ independent groups
A different group for every condition in experiments ; good because wide range and more focuse, bad because individual differences
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Research Design ~ repeated measures
Using same group for each condition ; good because no individual differences and consistency, bad because easy to guess and demand characteristics and fatigue and order effects
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Research Design ~ matched pairs
A type of independent groups design but tries to make each group as similar as possible ; good because minimises individual differences and order effects, bad because not practical
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Sampling Techniques - random sample
Everyone in target population has equal opportunity to be picked ; good because equal and excludes researcher bias, bad because unrepresentative and impractical
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Sampling Techniques - volunteer/self select sample
People put themselves forward and researchers advertise ; bad because not representative as not all volunteer - always same type that volunteer
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Sampling Techniques - opportunity sample
Using members in target population who are readily available ; good because practical and easy, bad because no range and no equal chance for others
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Research Statistics - measures of central tendency (averages)
Mean = add up numbers and divide by how many there are (uses all numbers in data), median = put numbers in numerical order & find middle one (useful w/ odd numbers), mode = most common number in data set
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Research Statistics - measures of dispersion (how far away scores are)
Range = difference between lowest & highest number in data set, standard deviation = better measure as uses all numbers ; calculate mean av. then see how far each score is & then use complicated formula to calc S.D bigger number = more varied results
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Atkinson & Shiffrin in 1968


Who devised the Multi Store Memory Model?

Card 3


3 seperate memory stores: sensory, STM & LTM, flow of info = sequential, STM & LTM = unity stores, rehearsal is only means of transferring info from STM - LTM


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Card 4


How much info can be held at a give time, capacity differs depending on the memory store


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Card 5


How long an amount of info can be held in a specific memory store


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