Psychology - Short Term Memory

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  • Created by: Lili
  • Created on: 28-10-13 11:02
Describe Short Term Memory (STM).
STM has a limited capacity and a limited duration.
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What were Miller's (1956) findings?
He found that STM has a capacity of 7 ± 2, therefore the range is 5-9, he thought that this was true whether the information was letters or numbers.
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How an more information be held in STM?
Chunking
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What is Chunking?
This means grouping information in some way that is meaningful to the person doing the remembering. For example the letters H O O P, being remembered as Hoop.
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What technique did Peterson and Peterson (1959) use in their research?
The Brown-Peterson Technique
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Describe the Brown-Peterson Method.
1. Participants were shown a trigram. 2. Participants were then asked to recall the trigram either 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 seconds later. During the time in between the presentation and recall, they were given an interference task (interfered w/
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Describe the Brown-Peterson Method.
auditory rehearsal) 3. P&P found that participants were able to easily recall the trigram after 3 seconds, less well by 6 seconds and continued to deteriorate as time increased. At 18 seconds subjects found it very hard to recall the trigram.
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Describe the Brown-Peterson Method.
4. The conclusion was that memory trace in STM had completely disappeared within 18 seconds. Therefore STM is no longer than 18 seconds.
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What is Rehearsal?
Rehearsing information, is re-presenting the information, so that the trace is reinforced. This means that you can artificially increase the duration of STM.
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What did Baddeley (1966) research to find out how memory in STM is encoded?
Presented participants with a list of words. They were then put in two different conditions.
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What was Baddeley's first condition?
Participants were asked to recall the words immediately (retrieve from STM). In this condition ACOUSTIC errors occurred. (e.g errors were for words like 'cap' and 'cat')
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What was Baddeley's second condition?
Participants were asked to recall the words a few hours later (retrieve from LTM). The errors were SEMANTIC (e.g. errors were with words that have the same meaning, 'small' and 'little'.)
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What did Conrad (1964) research to find out how memory in STM is encoded?
Presented subjects with 6 letters at a time. In one condition the letters were presented acoustically and in the other they were presented visually. The subjects had to recall the letters in the sequence that they were presented.
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What were Conrad's findings?
Errors were made acoustically, even when the letters had been presented visually. There was confusion was between letters that sound similar, such a 'c' and 'v', even though those letters do not look similar. Suggesting encoding in STM is ACOUSTIC.
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What did Posner (1969) find that added to Conrad's research?
Participants were shown 2 letters separated by a two second delay, and were asked to say whether the second letter was identical to the first or different. (e.g Aa=Not Identical, processing was longer for Aa, than for AA, showing some visual...
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What did Posner (1969) find that added to Conrad's research?
visual processing was happening because the acoustic processing was not sufficient in this task.)
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What were Miller's (1956) findings?

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He found that STM has a capacity of 7 ± 2, therefore the range is 5-9, he thought that this was true whether the information was letters or numbers.

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How an more information be held in STM?

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Card 4

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What is Chunking?

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Card 5

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What technique did Peterson and Peterson (1959) use in their research?

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