Psychology - Savage-Rumbaugh

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What approach does Savage-Rumbaugh belong to?
The Cognitive Approach.
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What was the first aim of Savage-Rumbaugh?
To study the language acquisition of two bonobo chimps compared to two common chimps.
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What was the second aim of Savage-Rumbaugh?
To describe the first instance of symbol acquisition in a non-human species without specific training.
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Who were the two bonobo chimps?
Kanzi (aged 4) and Mulika (Aged 3)
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Who were the two common chimps?
Austin (9) and Sherman (10) who were studied earlier.
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Why were these chimps used?
Previous research suggested that chimps are sociable and intelligent enough to acquire symbols, especially bonobo chimps as they are very sociable.
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Who suggested the nature theory of language acquisition?
Noam Chomsky, and the LAD which only humans possess.
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What is the nuture theory of language acquisition?
That it is learnt through operant conditioning or the social learning theory.
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What was the previous chimp which this study was based around called?
Washoe who had acquired sign language.
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What type of Research method was used?
A case study lasting 17 months of bonobo chimps and 10 years for the common chimps.
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Was Savage-Rumbaugh longitudinal or snapshot?
Longitudinal.
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What were two results of the Blind test?
1. Kanzi could understand his and the other persons knowledge. 2. Kanzi could used symbols referentially.
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What was a result of the Formal tests?
K&M matched lexigram to spoken english at 95% and 98%. A&S couldn't do this.
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What was a result of use of gestures?
Kanzi and Mulika used spontaneous gestures earlier and more explicit and Austin and Sherman.
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What were the first two vocabulary results?
1. Kanzi and Mulika showed development and use of lexigrams associatively and then referentially. 2. Kanzi and Mulika used lexigrams more specifically than Austin and Sherman.
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What were the second two vocabulary results?
1. Two and three word combinations were used by Kanzi and Mulika, and used more spontaneously and specifically by K compared to Nim. 2. Kanzi and Mulika had a higher rate of spontaneous usage than Austin and Sherman.
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What were the four important parts of the procedure?
1. Communication systems. 2. Rearing Environments. 3. Data Recording. 4. Testing.
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Describe the communication systems
All chimps used a lexigram, and K&M had a speech synthesiser, and were communicated with via spoken english and hand gestures from ASL. K&M used a pointing board outside.
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Describe the rearing environments
A&S were trained to use lexigrams, where as K&M observed and acquired them in modelling.
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Describe the data recording
Keyboard information was recorded automatically, and outside was manually recorded. They used correct, incorrect, spontaneous, imitated, structured as categories. It had to be spontaneous and appropriate 9/10 times with the correct behaviour.
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How was inter-rater reliability checked?
A 4.5 hour long video recording was made of a real time recorder and the chimps, while an independent observer would be observing the same chimps to be compared.
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Describe the testing.
There was everyday tests and formal tests. Formal tests included the ability to select the appropriate lexigram from shown photos or respond to spoken word, then select the right photo or lexigram. It was all in the afternoon and 20-40 test items.
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What was conducted in a blind forest?
A blind test.
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What were two conclusions of Savage-Rumbaugh?
1. Bonobo chimps have a greater disposition to acquire language and understand spoken language compared to common chimps. 2. Provides support for the Nurture argument and indicates it may be possible to push wild apes towards language use.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the first aim of Savage-Rumbaugh?

Back

To study the language acquisition of two bonobo chimps compared to two common chimps.

Card 3

Front

What was the second aim of Savage-Rumbaugh?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who were the two bonobo chimps?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who were the two common chimps?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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