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What is the order of the Multi-Store Model of Memory?
Sensory memory - Short term memory - Long term memory
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What is the capacity of the short term memory?
7 + or - 2
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How is the sensory memory coded for?
Sensory modality e.g. sight
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How is the short term memory coded for?
Acoustically
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How is the long term memory coded for?
Semantically
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What is the duration of the sensory memory?
1/2 to 2 seconds
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What is the duration of the short term memory?
18-30 seconds
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What is the duration of the long term memory?
Life time?
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What year was Glanzer and Cunitz study?
1966
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What was the aim of Glanzer and Cunitz study?
To investigate the differences in the memory stores
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What method did Glanzer and Cunitz use?
Gave ppts word lists to remember and then asked to recall as many as possible in a given time
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What did Glanzer and Cunitz find?
Words at start were reasonably well remembered, words at end were partially remembered, words in the middle were often forgotten
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What did Glanzer and Cunitz conclude?
latest words recalled due to recency effect, earliest words recalled because they had been processed in to the LTM
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How reliable was Glanzer and Cunitz study?
Good reliability because standardized procedures were used and so the study can be easily replicated to test for reliability
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Can Glanzer and Cunitz study be generalised?
No because the sample is unknown
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How valid is Glanzer and Cunitz study?
Low exptal validity because words could be linked together and low eco validity because the task lacked mundane realism
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Was Glanzer and Cunitz study ethically sounds?
There was some deception, however it was minimal and necessary to the experiment
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Who was Clive Wearing?
1988-damaged to hippocampus-can't remember anything past 7mins
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How does Clive Wearing support the M.S.M?
Supports idea that memory must go through STM to get to LTM
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Name 2 strengths of the M.S.M.
Research and case studies (Glanzer and Cunitz and Clive Wearing) Majority of research is scientific so the results are both reliable and meaningful
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Name 2 weaknesses of the M.S.M
KF damaged Hippocampus was able to make LTM memories but not STM. Research mainly lab experiments - lacks mundane realism
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What year was The Levels Of Processing Model created?
1972
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What are the different levels of the LOP?
Structural level, phonetic level, semantic level, selective attention
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What is the meaning of the structural level?
The physical structure e.g. upper or lower case letters
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What is the meaning of the phonetic level?
The sound the word made
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What is the meaning of the semantic level?
The meaning of the word
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What is the meaning of selective attention?
We pay attention to some things but not others.
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What is the framework of the LOP?
Perceptual analysis - Information - Series of stages - Levels of matching and pattern recognition - Enrichment
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What are the different types of rehearsal?
Maintenance only & Elaborative
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What is maintenance rehearsal?
Information is rehearsed to preserve it for a short time but is unlikely to form a strong memory
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What is elaborative rehearsal?
Refers to a deeper consideration of the information, often by giving it meaning, and is more likely to result in a durable memory being made
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What year was Craik and Tulving's original study?
1975
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What was the aim of Craik and Tulving's study?
Are words processed semantically than those processed structurally or phonetically
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What procedure did Craik and Tulving use?
Students given word list (40 words, 1-2 syllables) Asked structural, phonetic and semantic questions about words.Surprise recall test at end.
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What experimental design did Craik and Tulving use?
Repeated measures design - each ppt had different word questions combos
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What were the resuts of the Craik and Tulving's study?
Semantic=96% recall Structural=18% recall. Words processed semantically were recalled best
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What did Craik and Tulving conclude?
The depth of processing affects how well something is remembered
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How reliable was Craik and Tulving's study?
Standerdised procedures were used and so the study can be replicated to test for reliability
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Can Craik and Tulving's study be generalised?
Can be applied to real life, people learn better sematically
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How valid was Craik and Tulving's study?
Ecological validity is low because the task lacked mundane realism
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Was Craik and Tulving's study ethically sound?
Not completely - There was no informed consent and minimal deception
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What other evidence is there to support the LOP?
Hyde and Jenkins (1971)
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Name 2 strengths of the LOP Model of Memory.
The model explains the whole process of memory not just the stores involved (M.S.M). Lots of supporting evidence (Craik & Tulving/ Hyde & Jenkins)
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Name 2 weaknesses of the LOP Model of Memory.
We cannot see the processing being done and so the theory cannot be proved entirely. Deeper processing means more time spent processing and so it may be this that helps to create memories not the level of processing.
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What did Bartett study in 1932?
War of the Ghosts story - changes - Shorter (primary/recency) no unnecessary details - vivid and emotional details remembered
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What is schemata?
Categories of memory association
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What is confabulation?
Filling in gaps in memory
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What is the Working Memory Model of Memory?
The central executive controls how much processing capacity is allocated to each modality. Forgetting is due to there not being enough capacity for that modality at that point in time
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Which is the current favourite model of memory?
The Working Memory Model - explains why some people have particular memory deficits
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Who and in what year was Cue-dependency theory of forgetting was thought up?
Tulving in 1975
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What is the cue-dependency theory?
If the cues that were used during encoding are not there to aid retrieval then we may not be able to retrieve that memory
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How does Tulving define forgetting?
"the inability to recall something which one could on another occasion"
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What evidence is there to support cue dependency theory?
Tulving and Watkins (1975) & Light et al (1972)
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What 3 types of retrieval cues did Light et al investigate?
Homonyms, Synonyms, Words identical to the target word
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What did Light et al find?
Cue for recall = word - recall is good. Then homonyms followed by synonyms and finally no cues
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What did Light et al conclude?
It is not just the cues in the cognitive environment that aid recall but different cues have different effects
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