Psychology resit revision

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 06-06-13 17:52
What are the main symptoms of Schizophrenia?
Auditory halucinations, delusions, Disordered thinking - feel there thoughts have been inserted in their mind. Emotional and vilitional changes - emotions are 'flat' and they have little energy
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What are the primary impairments?
Hallucinations, Delusions, Thought disorder, Apathy, Emotional blunting
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What are the secondary impairments?
Social - unemployment, social drift, institutionalisation, rejection + prejudice. Psychological - Dependent, poor coping, Loss of confidence, no motivation.
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What is meant by the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
those that are additional to normal behaviour such as hallucinations or delusions.
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What is meant by negative-syndrome schizophrenia?
when there is a deficit in normal behaviour patterns, such as lack of communication and emotional expression,
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What is used to diagnose schizophreina? and how is it diagnosed?
DSM-IV. psychologists need to distinguish the symptoms from other psychotic disorders and then determine the type of schiz. The DSM requires symptoms that have been present at least 1 month and others for 6 month before diagnosis can be made.
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What are the specific diagnostic criteria set out by the DSM-IVR?
A. Charecteristic symptoms B. Social/occupational dysfunction C. Duration
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What is involved in charecteristic symptoms?
Two (or more) of the following each present for a 1 month period: delusions, Hallucinations, Disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms
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what is involved in social/occupational dysfunction?
for a signifigant perportion of time since the onset of the disturbance one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations or self care are markedly below level achiever prior to onset.
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What is involved in duration?
continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. this 6 month period must include 1 month of symptoms that meet criterion A.
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What are the types of shizophrenia which appear in the DSM?
Paranoid, catatonic, disorganised, undifferentiated, residual
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What is Type I and type II Schizophrenia?
Type I - Positive symptoms, responsive to drug treatment, Limbic system abnormalities. Type II - Negative symptoms, Less responsive to drugs, Abnormalities in the frontal lobes and Enlarged ventricles.
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Evaluation of classification of Schizophrenia:
Schiziphrenia is a complicated condition, making it difficult to diagnose. Argued there is a third cluster of symptoms which are unrelated to positive and negative known as disorganised Schiz; assosiated with chaotic speech and behaviour.
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What is the genetic explanation of Schizophrenia?
If one family member has schizophrenia there is an increased risk for other family members. The risk of schizophrenia in the general population is about 1%.
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what are twin studies?
MZ twins have 100% of genes in common, whereas DZ twins have only 50% of genes in common if **** is a genetic disorder one would predict that where one twin has been diagnosed the concordance rate for MZ twins should be greater than DZ.
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What are adoption studies?
the studies are of children apopted within weeks of birth, from mothers with schizophrenia. such children have no common genes with the familythat rears them(where no one has schiz) seperating genes from environment.
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What did Heston's adoption study show?
of 47 mothers with schiz whose children were adopted within days by psychiatrically well mothers found the incedence of **** in the children to be 16% (well above the 1% chance level.)
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Evaluation of the genetic explanation?
findings from adoption studies suggest that inheretence does play a part in schiz. 46% concordance rate found for MZ twins suggests major contribution of genotype.
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investigation for neurotransmitters has been carried out in three ways:
1. Looking at evidence of metabolites in urine/blood 2. through examination of post-morten tissue 3. through neuromiaging techniques e.g. PET scan.
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What is the 'dopamine hypothesis'?
at first it was thought excessive dopamingeric activity in the brain was the cause of schizoprenic symptoms
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where did they get evidence for the dopamine hypothesis?
1. When taken by healthy individuals, drugs that increase dopamingeric activity in the brain resulted in psychotic symptoms 2. such drugs also exacerbate psychotic symptoms in people with schiz 3. drugs that block dopamingeric neurons reduce symptoms
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it was found it was the heightened sensitivity of the receptors for dopamine in the brain that lead to schiz symptoms. evidence for this comes from..
Post mortem studies showing there are more D2 receptors in the brains of people with schiz than of normal ppz, PET scans reported increase in D2 receptors in patiens with schiz,
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Evaluation of Nuerochemical explanation
use of post mortens - not clear weather increase in D2 is cause of pathology or drugs taken.
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what are the sociocultural explanations of schizophrenia?
Labelling, Family dysfunction.
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how can labelling cause schizophreina?
Scheff - an individual who breaks residual rules is assigned a label of 'mentally ill'. this label influences the person to act to fit the label finding it hard to fit back into normal society. (Self fulfilling prophecy)
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outline Rosenhans study
group of people pretended they could hear a voice which said 'empty' 'hollow' and 'thud'. they were sent to hospitla with schiz. patients behaved normal once admitted their behaviour was interpreted by stafff as 'schizophrenic'
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what are the results of rosenhans study
the patients had difficulty convincing staff they were sane and were hospitalised between 7 - 52 days. normal behaviour was seen as abnormal. once labelled with **** the label stuck and were discharged with 'schiz in remission.'
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Evaluation of labelling theory
Rosenhans study helped improve reliability of diagnosis. The theory only accounts for how symptoms are maintained not explain the cause or offer treatment. ignores genetic evidence
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What did bateson et al suggest about family dysfunction?
communication between parent and child was sometimes contradictory - 'double bind'. a parent might be saying one thing but there body language another.children who experience this learn not to trust own feeling as shown in people with shciz
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According to family socialisation theory there are 2 types of abnormal family structures:
Schismatic- conflicts between parents result in competition for affection of family members and desire to take control of other parent. Skewed - one partner dominates; child encouraged to follow dominant one imparing cognitive/social development
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Evaluation of early studies of family dysfunction
not possible to untangle cause and effect. may be parents reaction to difficult child that causes the family problems, rather than family patterns causing problems in the child.
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What is the expressed emotion explanation?
Brown et al. people with schiz who were discharged from hopsital and returned to parents fared worse than those who returned to lodgings. high face to face contact was found to increase risk of relapse. this due to parents emotional over involvment.
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Emotional over involvment was operationalised to include:
Emotion (positive and negative) Hostility, and critical comments (Tone of voice and content.)
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What did bebbington and Kuipers study involve?
data was analysed to determine the proportion of EE families and the average relapse rate for people with schiz. returning to high level and low level EE families
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what are the results of bebbington and kuipers study?
52% of families were high EE. Relapse in the high EE families averaged 50% whilst in the low EE families it was 20% a difference that was highly statistically signifigant.
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Evaluation of the 'expressed emotion' explanation?
high EE patterns are not specific to schiz, also found in families with deppression. EE is measured via 1:1 interview might not be accurate picture of family interaction patterns.
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What drugs are used to treat schizophrenia?
'atypical' neuroleptics. e.g. rispiredone. - proved efficient for individuals who did not respond to older nuroleptics. newer drugs dont have side affects. + Chloroplazmine
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Evaluation of drug treatment?
Side effects are distressing, Clozpine assosiated with potentially fatal lowering of white blood count. Rispiredone = + no evidence these drugs are effective for negative symptoms.
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what is psychotherapy?
generic term which covers psychdynamic + cog therapies. non biological talking therapies, not always effective in individuals with sever schiz symptoms.
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cognitive therapy usually includes the following components..
therapist questions clients delusion and puts forward more reasonable one, by challenging evidence a reduction in conviction can occur. client becomes aware of link between events, belief affect and behaviour.
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outline chadwick et als study of nigel
claimed to have special power of knowing what people were going to say , to test belief video recorders were put on pause and nigel was asked to say what was coming next, out of 50 did not get any right and concluded he did not have the power at all.
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Evalutation of cognitive therapy
lead to faster response to treatment in group of patients with schiz compared to drugs alone. trials using cog therapy for delusions have shown 40% reduction in severity of psychotic symptoms.
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What are the primary impairments?


Hallucinations, Delusions, Thought disorder, Apathy, Emotional blunting

Card 3


What are the secondary impairments?


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Card 4


What is meant by the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?


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Card 5


What is meant by negative-syndrome schizophrenia?


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