Psychology- Research methods

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Definition of Ethics
Moral rules on human conduct that are heavily influenced by times, culture and religion
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Defintion of Deception
Ethical issue- not telling the participants the true aim of the study
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Definition of Right to Withdraw
Experimenters must tell the participants they have the right to stop the experiment at any point
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Defintion of Debrief
At the end of the study when participants must be told the true aims of the study
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Defintion of Confidentiality
Individual participants should not be named in any write up as a respect of their privacy
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Definition of Ecological Validity
How close to real life situations the experiment is
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What types of sampling are there?
1) Opportunity 2) Random 3) Self selected 4) Stratified
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What is Opportunity Sampling?
Sample is composed of participants who happen to be in the right place at the right time. Its the most common method as its the easiest way
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What is Random Sampling?
A represented sample where participants are chosen in no particular pattern from a population of interest
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What is Self- Selecting Sample?
When experimenters publish an advert asking for participants and people put themseleves forward for participation
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Key Features of Correlations
Data analysis technique which shows the relationship between tow variables which can be either positive, negative or 0 shown on a scatter graph
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Advantages of Correlations
Allows us the measure the relationship of two variables that may be difficult or unethical to carry out as an experiment
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Disadvantages of Correlations
Doesn't show cause and effect
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What is a Self Report?
Its a method of data collection where participants make subjective judgements. Includes questionaires and interviews
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Name the three different types of Interviews?
1) Structured 2) Semi- Structured 3) Unstructured
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What is a Structured Interview?
When the interviewer has pre-determined questions to ask the participant and sticks to it.The same questions are asked to every participant
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What is a Semi-Structured Interview?
When the interviewer has a list of questions to ask but can be flexible to fit into the partcipants responses
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What is an Unstructured Interview?
No predetermined questions are set. Open ended questions are used as the participants answers stimulate new questions
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Definition of Independant Groups
When participants are randomly allocated to groups that are in different conditions
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Defintion of Repeated Measures
When the same participants are tested in both conditions
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Definitions of Matched Pairs
When participants are dvided into groups based on the matching of one or more criteria (age,gender)
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Definition of Independant Variable
The variable you are manipulating (changing)
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Definiton of Dependant Variable
The variable you are measuring
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Definition of Extraneous Variable
Any other variable apart form the IV and the DV that MAY effect the results
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Definition of Confounding Variable
Any other variable apart from the IV and DV that HAS effected the results
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How can you control for Participant Variables?
By the design; 1) Independant Groups 2) Repeated measures 3) Matched Pairs
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What are the Situational Variables?
1) Order Effects 2) Environment 3) Investigator Bias 4) Demand Characteristics
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What does Single Blind Mean?
When participants are unaware of the true aim of the study
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What does Standardised Instructions mean?
When you tell exactly the same instructions/ information to all the participants
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Name the three types of experimental methods?
1) Laboratory 2) Field 3) Quasi
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Definitions of Reliability
The amount of consistancy in your results
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Definition of Internal Reliability
Whether it is consistant from one occasion to another
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Definition of Inter-rater Reliability
Whether the consistancy remains the same when tested between different researchers
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Definition of Validity
If the experiment is measuring what it is intended to measure
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Definition of Internal Validity
Whether the results are due to the IV and not confounding variables (This can be measured by Face and Concurrent Validity)
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Defintion of External Validity
If the results can be generalised in different environments
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Definition of Face Validity
Does it measure what it looks like it suppose to measure
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Definition of Concurrent Validity
If you pass an experiment once you should be able to pass it again a week later
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Ethical issue- not telling the participants the true aim of the study

Back

Defintion of Deception

Card 3

Front

Experimenters must tell the participants they have the right to stop the experiment at any point

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

At the end of the study when participants must be told the true aims of the study

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Individual participants should not be named in any write up as a respect of their privacy

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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