Psychology - Relationships

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What is the halo effect?
When one good characteristic blinds partner of all bad
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What is the mere exposure hypothesis?
The more you're exposed to something, the more you like it
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What is the basis of Merstein's exposure hypothesis?
Finding the best possible partner without rejection
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What is Byrne & Clore's reward/need satisfaction model?
In a relationship, rewards and satisfaction of needs are recieved
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What is operant conditioning?
Desirable & undesirable consequences = more & less frequent behaviour
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What is classical conditioning?
Association
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What are three examples of ways to maintain relationships?
1.Compromise 2.Communication 3.Honesty
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What does Thibaut & Kelley's social exchange theory suggest?
All social behaviour is a set of social exchanges & there are rewards and costs within a relationship
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What are the four stages in Thibaut & Kelley's four stage model?
1.Sampling 2.Bargaining 3.Commitment 4.Institutionalisation (*a relationship is maintained if reward exceeds costs & profit exceeds an alternative)
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What is the basis of the equity theory?
Fairness in a relationship (greater inequality, greater unhappiness)
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What is sexual selection?
Passing on traits that are selected because they improve the 'attractiveness' of an individual making them a 'good mate'
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What does parental investment theory suggest?
That women are more prepared than males for dealing with parenting
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What are the two key points influencing maternal investment?
1.Infant dependence on the mother (brain size) 2.Certainty of maternity = greater investment
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What are the three key points influencing paternal investment?
1.Focus on courtship & copulation (males can opt out) 2.Danger of cuckoldry 3.Shift from mating to parenting
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What is the summary of what males & females compete for in parental investment?
Males compete for quantity and females compete for quality
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What does Shaver suggest are the three behavioural systems acquired in infancy that effect love in adulthood?
1.Attachment 2.Caregiving 3.Sexuality
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What are the effects of childhood abuse (physical & sexual) on later relationships?
Physical abuse = depression, anxiety, anger. Sexual = difficulty forming healthy relationships. Both = inability to trust, distancing & self-isolation
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How do childhood friendships effect future relationships?
Children learn experiences from friends & friends promote feelings of trust & acceptance
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What happens in the later stages of childhood?
Attachment shifts from parents to peers
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What two purposes do relationships in adolescence serve as?
1.Achieve goal of separation from parents 2.Different type of emotional & physical intimacy
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What is the overall view on adolescents dating?
Some adolescent dating = advantageous, too much dating = maladaptive
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What is the difference between men and women in terms of sexual and emotional jealousy?
(men) unfaithful mate = investing in offspring not his own. (women) unfaithful mate = diversion of resources away from her & her offspring
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Card 2

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What is the mere exposure hypothesis?

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The more you're exposed to something, the more you like it

Card 3

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What is the basis of Merstein's exposure hypothesis?

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Card 4

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What is Byrne & Clore's reward/need satisfaction model?

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Card 5

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What is operant conditioning?

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