Psychology - Reicher and Haslam

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What's the Background of Reicher and Haslam?
Zimbardo claimed that the formation of groups will always lead to tyrannical behaviour.
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What are some features of the Sample?
15 participants with diversity of age, social class, ethnic backgrounds.
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How was the sample recruiting, the sampling method?
332 people originally applied through national newspapers and leaflets, so a volunteer sample. They were reduced using 3 stage screening.
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What happened in the 3 stage process?
1. Psychometric testing to determine social variables. 2. Assessments by clinical psychologists for a weekend. 3. Medical and Character references and Police checks to ensure stability.
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What Research method did it use?
It was an Experimental Case Study.
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What were the three IV's?
1. Permeability. 2. Legitmacy. 3. Cognitive Alternatives.
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What were the three DV's?
They were measured by self reports. 1. Social variables. 2. Organisational Variables. 3. Clinical Variables.
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What was the Aim of Reicher and Haslam?
The aim was to analyse the conditions that lead individuals to indeitfy with their own group and accept or challenge intergroup inequalities.
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What were two hypothesis?
1. Dominant group members will identify with their own group. 2. Subordinated group members will only identify with their group and challenge inequality if they view their relations as impermeable.
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What day did the study stop on and why?
Day 8 as the study became gridlocks and would break ethical guidelines.
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What happened in the debriefing?
They obtained data about their experiences and helped them to overcome hostility with other participants.
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What other measurements were taken during the study?
1. Cortisol levels. 2. Audio and Video recordings.
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What is Permeability?
On day 1 all P's were told the guards were selected due to certain characteristics such as reliability.They were told that if they showed these qualities then they would be promoted on day 3. However only 1 prisoner was promoted.
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What is Legitimacy?
On day 6 it was planned that P's would be told there wasn't actually any characteristics to make the group decision seem unfair, however this didn't go ahead due to day 5.
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What is Cognitive Alternatives?
Prisoner 10 was introduced on day 5. He was chosen because he has background as a trade union official, therefore the skills for negotiation to challenge equality, thus a cognitive alternative.
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What are the two phases?
1. Rejecting inequality up to day 6 2. Embracing inequality on days 7-8
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Why was the study terminated?
Because after the collapse of the new commune created by day 5, it was proposed by the new cards for a newer, harsher regime
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What happened on day 5?
Prisoner 10 was introduced. Prisoners stole the keys off of the guards who were then prepared to negotiate to get the keys back. The trade unionist suggested a daily meeting to discuss grievances.
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What happened on day 6?
The breakdown of the commune as Prisoner 10 was withdrawn, where P's were told it was health related. The commune worked effectively at first, but then three p's rebelled by not doing chores. As a result, prisoners in cell 2 broke out.
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What are two conclusions?
1. Extreme antisocial behaviour can be reduced by making people account for themselves. 2. A shared social identity can lead to good organisation but when groups fail they may give up their values for a more workable order.
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What were the results for social identification in phase 1?
1. Prisoners didnt seek promotion until it became impermeable. 2. Guards didn't identify, were vary of exerting authority.
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What were the results for Security of intergroup relationships in phase 1?
1. Guards couldn't identify which led to bad leadership which caused conflicts. 2. Willingness to comply with leadership dropped on day 5.
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What were the results for Impacts on Clinical Variables?
1. Unity of prisoners lead to decreased depression and increased self efficacy scores. 2. Opposite for the guards.
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Card 2

Front

What are some features of the Sample?

Back

15 participants with diversity of age, social class, ethnic backgrounds.

Card 3

Front

How was the sample recruiting, the sampling method?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened in the 3 stage process?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What Research method did it use?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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