psychology Perception

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  • Created by: Chloe1345
  • Created on: 17-05-15 17:18
Gibson
Bottom up theory--- inborn adoptive survival mechanism. doesnt depend on stored knowledge
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optic array
pattern of light on retina reflected by surfaces,texture and object= unambigous
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ambianet optic array
pattern of light changes according to movement= creates optic flow patterns
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optic flow pattern
'flow around' rich data, unambigious info on movement,speed,altitude and direction
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automatically extracted invarients
pole, texture, gradients, horizon ration/ picked up from optci array- resonance
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object affordances
applies meaning to what has been seen - multiple affordance= environmental context
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Graziano et al (Gibsons)
neurological evidence/ indentified neurons in visual cortes which underpin perception of optic flow patterns
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Warren and Hannon (Gibsons)
(cognitive evidence)p's watch film of moving dot patterns which stimulated optic flow pattern as if they were mocing in a particular direction- optic flow employed to determine direction
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van de Berg and Bremner (Gibsons)
optic flow achieved by monocular visual alone/ more accuracy in binoculare vision -- other factors effect judgement.
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Hahn et al (Gibsons)
p's 2 photos of real scence, quickly one after other 1) 50ms apart 2)1000ms----movement not needed to assess movement direction
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Fordor and plyystyn ( reductionist)(Gibson)
distinguising seeing for seeing as cant condense comples conitivee system to small elements
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Gregory (Gibsons)
retina on eye too ambigious. perception=compliation of active process,expectations,knowledge,alternative motivations and emtional factors. Higher cognitive processing. testing based on active processes
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Gregory
Top-down theory
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Top-down theory
indirect,retina on eye not rich enough. active processes;expectations,knowledge,alternative motivation, emtional fators. higher cognitive process (milliesec) an active constructive process. cant sense wieght,edibility or temp
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Hallow face illusion Gregory
tested own theory, pre-exsisting expectations
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Shafer and Murphy Gregory
2 face illusion. operant conditioning, one face assosiated with financial gain and then loss= less motivation
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Skinner Gregory
doesnt disinguish between whether perception was truly affected or if ressult occurs atthe level of response
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Solley and Haigh Gregory
4-8yrs draw santa . close to xmas= excited so draws more extravegantly compared to further away from xmas = emtional factors
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Muller lyer illusion Gregory
inside and outside corner building
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Matlin and Faley Gregory
perception of stimuli affected by those parts not being judged- shafts may apear longrt ot smaller tahn genuine because part of larger/smaller object
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Coren and Gigus Gregory
illusions reduced if fins are different colour ( confirmed experimentally)
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Delucia and Hochburg Gregory
miller-lyer illusion using 30 wooden blocks with no lines; illusion maintained
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Gordon Gregory
human perception development on African grassland
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Segall et al Gregory
susceptability to illusion affect to whether p's were accustomed to carpented environment. rural zulus circular huts =less affected
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Gregor and Mcpherson Gregory
no difference in susceptibility to illusion btween urbanised and traditional aborigion australians
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Stanford gregory
p's deprived of food BREAD no deprived BORED emtional affects
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Bower Shape
operant conditioning 2months make head turn when presesnted with rectangle at 45o then 4 conditiions 1)original 2)same size at 90o 3)trapeziod at right angle 4)trapeziod 45o result- 1&2 2xresponse compared to trapeziod
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coron et al shape
3 month habituated square/trapeziod. presented at different angles never face on. sometimes squ same retinal image as trape viseversa. regained ingterested in new shape thus shape constancy
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slater and morrison shape
habituated neonates square/trapeziod various angle. same shape new angle &novel shape.. novel shape more attention
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Bower size
9p's 6-9 weeks operant conditioning to turn heads at 30cm cuce 1m away. 1)30cm 3m 2)90cm 1m 3)90cm 3m results for head turns 1)58 2)54 3)22
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mckenzie et al size
4-6 habituation to object.6months when presented with a shape that differed in true size infants regained interest but didnt do likewise with another stimuli of the same size as the original but at a different distance. 4months similiar but weaker ex
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Day et al
replicated McKenzie et al
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Slater et al size
habituated neonates smaller/larger cube over number of presentations. then cubes presented but larger cubes at greater distance . all infants looked longer at new cube. could distinguish between small/larger despite producing same retinal image
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Turnbull cross culture
kenge,pygmy people. saw buffalo 'what insect is that?' unable to use distance cues to intpret size
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Hudson cross culture
2D pictorial cues. Bantu,European&Indian children in south africa. picture elephant antelope man point a spear at. 'Whats nearer to the man? primary school= deficit using depth. Academic;nearly all europeans, some bantus could interpret depth
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Page cross culture
Bantus underrestimated= improved depth perception when Q changed 'which is nearer to you?'
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Hagen and Jones cross culture
depth comprehension improved as depth cues increased, elemets such as texture gradients
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Hudsons cross culture
utilisation of depth cues can be learninng dependent
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Hagen and jones cross culture
depth cues not equally significant in all cultures
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Page cross culture
great care required in designing procedure
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Segall cross culture
Muller-lyer illusion, according to gregory arises due to combination of 3D cues signalling jutting and receding corners.suseptability effected by whether p's accustomed to carpentered envi ( ZULUS less afeected than americans/europeans)
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Card 2

Front

pattern of light on retina reflected by surfaces,texture and object= unambigous

Back

optic array

Card 3

Front

pattern of light changes according to movement= creates optic flow patterns

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

'flow around' rich data, unambigious info on movement,speed,altitude and direction

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

pole, texture, gradients, horizon ration/ picked up from optci array- resonance

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Preview of the back of card 5
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