Psychology- Methods (Experimental) + Others

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  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 30-01-14 17:11
What are the steps of the scientific method?
Problem needs explanation (research question), come up with a theory (formulate an aim), hypothesis, Experiment (IV,DV) + control, accurate measurements, Obtain data
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analyse data, establish whether hypothesis is supported, theory/hypothesis adjusted in light of evidence, findings published.
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What is a researh question?
what the researcher wants to find out
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What is the aim?
General statement saying what will be investigated.
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What is a hypothesis?
a testable staement which make predictions about what will happen in an investigation.
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What does a hypothesis need to do to the variables?
Operationalise them, so the variables can be measured.
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Diffrent types of hypothesis?
Research hypothesis, experimental hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, null hypothesis.
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What is the research hypothesis?
A testable statement which predicts there will be a diffrence in the in the measured variable (DV) eg: change in DV due to IV.
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Experimental?
A testable statement which predicts there will be a diffrence in the DV when the IV is changed. It is only used if an experiment occurs.
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Null?
A testable statement which predicts there will be no significant diffrence in the DV when the IV is changed.
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alternative?
Testable statement which preditcs a diffrence in the DV when the IV is changed. It follows the null if the null is given first.
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Independant variable?
The variable which is manipluated by the experimentor/investigator.
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Dependant variable?
The variable which is measured after the IV has been effected.
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What is a confounding variable?
A variable which has already occured and may have an effect on the results and therefore reduce validity.
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What is an extraneous variable?
A variable which may have an effect on the results and needs to be controlled to prevent it becoming a confounding variable.
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What is standerization, counterbalancing and randomisation examples off?
Ways of arranging conditions to try and reduce the effects of extraneous variables.
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Standardisation?
Making everything the same across all conditions (except the IV obviously).
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Counterbalancing?
Ensures that every condition is exeriemented by the same number of participants in every diffrent combination. Reduces order effects (eg: practice effect, fatigue effect).
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Randomisation?
Every condition has an equal chance of occuring in any combination and its posistion is decided by random chance.Cant be accused of being biast therefore.
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Three diffrent types of scientific experiments?
Lab, field and quasi.
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What is a lab experiment?
An experiement carried out under scientific conditions, where only the IV is changed.
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Advantages, disadvantages?
Controls extraneous variables which makes the cause and effect relationship identified more valid. Limitation, artifical setting and therefore reduced ecological validity.
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Field experiment?
Carried out in the natural setting the behaviour is observed.
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advantages and disadvantages?
Some level of control over extraneous variables BUT not full control as enviromental factors are out of their control. Reduces validity
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Quasi?
Lab or field BUT the IV is not maipluated by the experimentor, because it is unthical or unpratical to do so. Instead, the manipluation is by nature.
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3 types of experimental design?
Indepndant group design, dependant group design, matched pairs.
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Repeated?
same participants are used in every condition.
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Strenghs/Weaknesses?
No participant variables, fewer participants recruited. BUT order effects (practice effect, fatigue effect)
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Independant?
Diffrent participants in each condition.
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Strenghs/weaknesses?
No order effects, same task given so therefore controlled. BUT participant variables.
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Matched pairs?
Example of independant group design but the two groups have participants in who are very simular regarding the characterisitcs deemed appropiate by the investigator.
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Strenghs/weaknesses?
No order effects, reduced participant variables. BUT hard to do & time consuming & potentially expensive.
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What is a case study?
A focused in-depth study into one person/group of people
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What do they often use?
Unstructured interviews, observations and past records.
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What are they often used to investigate?
Atypical behaviour or unusual situations, something you couldnt replicate or find on a massive scale.
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pros and cons?
High validity, events which cant be ethically or physically recreated BUT difficult to generalise and lose of objectivity. + Lack of cause and effect.
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What is content analyse?
Studying people indirectly by studying the materials they produce rather then them themselves.
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What can it be?
Qualative or Quantative.
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Pros and Cons?
Study people we would have little/no access too and reduces ethical issues BUT can misinterpret thoughts, qualiative makes it harder to compare, quantative lacks validity.
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Sampling- what is the target population?
Wider group of people that research findings should apply too.
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What is sampling?
Taking a section of a target population and sample frame that should be a representation of that entire target population.
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What is a sampling frame?
Section of the target population where the sample is initially drawn from.
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What are the 4 sampling tequniques?
Random, systematic, stratisfied, Oppotunity
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What is random sampling? Pros and Cons?
Participants chosen by chance, so everyone within the sampling frame has an equal chance of being chosen. Pro: avoids biast & probs get rep sample BUT freak sample & time consuming.
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Systamatic?
Taking every nth person from the sampling frame. Pros: avoids biast, law of prob says rep sample BUT freak sample & less objective.
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Statisfied?
Sampling frame divided into groups that the researcher wants represented. Dependant upon how many in each group, take proportional sample from it.
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pros and Cons?
avoids freak samples and objective BUT time consuming & not all key concepts identified thus groups useless.
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Opputunity?
Taking participants who have been chosen because it was convinient. Pros: Less time consuming BUT not likely will be true representative and bias.
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Card 4

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Card 5

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