Psychology- Methods (Non-experimental)

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  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 31-12-13 15:44
What are methods of self report?
When participants report on themselves.
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3 teqniques?
Questionares, structured & unstructured interviews
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Questionares- what are they?
Composed of a number of questons
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What are the diffrent teqniquques they can be filled out?
face to face, to a group, through post, online, telephone.
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Evaluation of questionares- Positive
Large numbers can be administered, more cost effective and less time consuming. Can be completed privatly and therefore be anomolous.
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Not everyone returns them, responce bias also due to only certian types of people returning them. People may misunderstand questions also.
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What is an interview?
Researcher directly asks participant questions and records them. Often in a 1 to 1 basis.
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What is a structured interview? Unstructured?
Use pre-determined questions, use starter common questions but the participant controls the direction of the interview.
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Comparing the two?
Structured are better at identifiying trends and patterns due to same questions. But they have low validity, high reliability. Opposite for unstrucured.
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Unstrcutured allow for the person to identify new areas of intrest they may not of known. But structured elimiates any unneeded infomation.
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Open VS Closed questions?
Closed, only certiain responces, open, they participant can write their own responce. Reliability VS validity agian.
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What is a pilot study?
Snall scale, trial study.
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why do it?
Ensures that the study does not offend, gives data which is relevant to the hypothesis, not misunderstood etc.
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Self-report method- positive
access peoples thoughts directly, find what people would do in situations without having to set them up.
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Person must be able to evaluate themselves and therefore must have certian qualtities, their responces may also be biast, participant may be influended by the interviewer.
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What is an observational study?
Watching and recording peoples behaviours
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Methods of doing this?
Scoring system, check list, tally, notes, video recording.
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What are the 3 things to consider when undergoing a observation?
Labratory or natural setting?, Covert or Overt, participate themselves or not?
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Labratory VS natural observations?
Labratory- controlled therefore estabilishing cause and effect relationships BUT artifical and therefore low EV Natural ecological validity BUT lacks generalisability & lacks direct C&A.
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Covert VS uncovert
covert- more valid BUT low ethics. overt- observer effect- are they only showing what you want them to see?
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Participant VS non-participant
Experiencing the situation themselves gives them a better insight however may become non-objective.
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What is a correlation study?
When data which has been taken is anaylsed.
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How is it done?
we look for a correlation between two variables, the IV and DV, on quantative data.
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postive correlation?Negative?
as one increases so does the other.One decreases as the other increases.
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No colleration at all
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Strengh of a relationship & direction, allows you to to find a relationship where an experiment is unpractical or unethical to complete.
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Correlation does not always equal cause and effect (other factors) they also must be quantified, which decreases their ecological validity.
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3 teqniques?


Questionares, structured & unstructured interviews

Card 3


Questionares- what are they?


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Card 4


What are the diffrent teqniquques they can be filled out?


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Card 5


Evaluation of questionares- Positive


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