Psychology Memory Studies

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Peterson and Peterson (1959) investigated duration of STM
Participants asked to recall nonsense trigrams after either 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 secs. During intervals, asked to perform an interference task. 80% recalled correctly after 3 secs and only 10% recalled correctly after 18 secs.
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Baddeley (1966) investigated encoding in STM and LTM
4 sets of words asked to recall either immediately or after interval. Patterns of confusion between similar words suggests LTM is more likely to rely on semantic encoding and STM on acoustic encoding.
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Shallice and Warrington (1970)
Found support for working memory model through case study of KF. KF= brain damaged patient with impaired STM. Problem was immediate recall of words presented verbally but not visually. Suggests impaired articulatory loop.
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Loftus and Palmer (1974) studied eyewitness testimony and leading questions
Participants shown film of a car crash shown and asked a series of questions about it. Participants given the word 'smashed' estimated highest speed whereas those given the word 'contacted' gave lowest speed estimate.
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Valentine and Coxon (1997) studied effect of age on EWT
3 groups of participants watched video of a kidnapping then asked a series of leading/non-leading questions. Both elderly and children gave more incorrect answers to non-leading questions. Children were more misled by leading questions .
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Loftus (1979) weapon focus effect
Participants heard a discussion in a nearby room: condition one- man with pen and grease, condition two- man with bloody knife. Condition one- 49% accurate identification. Condition two- 33% accurate identification.
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Geiselman et al (1986) cognitive interview
Staged condition, participants question about an event using either standard interview procedure of cognitive interview. Participants in cognitive interview conditions more likely to recall correctly.
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Card 2

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4 sets of words asked to recall either immediately or after interval. Patterns of confusion between similar words suggests LTM is more likely to rely on semantic encoding and STM on acoustic encoding.

Back

Baddeley (1966) investigated encoding in STM and LTM

Card 3

Front

Found support for working memory model through case study of KF. KF= brain damaged patient with impaired STM. Problem was immediate recall of words presented verbally but not visually. Suggests impaired articulatory loop.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Participants shown film of a car crash shown and asked a series of questions about it. Participants given the word 'smashed' estimated highest speed whereas those given the word 'contacted' gave lowest speed estimate.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

3 groups of participants watched video of a kidnapping then asked a series of leading/non-leading questions. Both elderly and children gave more incorrect answers to non-leading questions. Children were more misled by leading questions .

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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