Psychology Memory Studies

STM: Short term memory

LTM: Long term mmory

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Peterson and Peterson
Multi-store: See if we need rehearsal to hold info in the STM. Given sets of 3 letters to remember but immediately asked to count backwards in threes for diff. amounts of time to stop rehearsal. Participants forgotten study after 18 secs.
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Murdock
Multi-store: Asked to learn a list of word for 2 secs per word. The words at the start of the list recalled (primacy effect). Words from the end of list recalled (recency effect). Last words in ST and first words in LT. Supports Multi-store memory.
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Bartlett
Reconstructive: Unfamiliar info is altered when remembered. Asked to read Native American legend 'The War of the Ghosts'. Retold the story several times in the week. Changed story to make sense to them. Our memory is influenced by our own beliefs.
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Wynn and Logie
Reconstructive: Does the recall of familiar stories change like in Bartlett? Uni students asked to recall first week at uni adn didt his several times throughout the year. Their descriptions did not change. Memories of familiar events will not chang
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Craik and Lockhart:
Levels of processing: Questions requiring diff. levels of processing. Asked eg. does cat rhyme with mat. Recalled 70% of semantic words, 35% of phonetic words, 15% of structural words. Deeper processed info is easier to recall.
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Underwood and Postman:
Interference: Does new learning interfere with previous learning? Group A: learnt a list of word pairs, then another list. B: only learnt the 1st. Both recalled 1st list. Group B's recall was better. New learning interfered with recall of 1st list.
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Godden and Baddeley:
Context: Learning and tested in the same or diff. environment. Deep sea divers in 4 groups.Learning list of words underwater/on shore recalling under water/onshore. Recall of info is better when in same context as the learning.
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Miller
Amnesia: A patient with epilepsy had 2/3 of hippocampus removed. Since, he hasn't been able to recall new info. Hippocampus is crucial for recording new memories.
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Loftus and PAlmer:
Leading Questions: Teir effect on accuracy of recall. Shown film of car crash. How fast was car going when it hit/smashed other car. Smashed gave higher speed estimate. Leading questions will affect the accuracy of recall.
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Bruce and Young
Unfamiliar faces: Psychology lecturers caught on camera. Participants asked to identify him from series of photos. The Psychology lecturers students made more correct identifications. Previous familiarity helps when identifying faces.
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Gieselman et al
Context: Participants shown police film of violent crime. 2 days later they were interviewed about it. For half the context was reinstated and recalled more accurately. Recreating context during interviews increases the accuracy of recall(cognitive
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Card 2

Front

Multi-store: Asked to learn a list of word for 2 secs per word. The words at the start of the list recalled (primacy effect). Words from the end of list recalled (recency effect). Last words in ST and first words in LT. Supports Multi-store memory.

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Murdock

Card 3

Front

Reconstructive: Unfamiliar info is altered when remembered. Asked to read Native American legend 'The War of the Ghosts'. Retold the story several times in the week. Changed story to make sense to them. Our memory is influenced by our own beliefs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reconstructive: Does the recall of familiar stories change like in Bartlett? Uni students asked to recall first week at uni adn didt his several times throughout the year. Their descriptions did not change. Memories of familiar events will not chang

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Levels of processing: Questions requiring diff. levels of processing. Asked eg. does cat rhyme with mat. Recalled 70% of semantic words, 35% of phonetic words, 15% of structural words. Deeper processed info is easier to recall.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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