Psychology- Memory

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One experiment into the capacity of STM
Simon wanted to investigate Miller's theory of 7+-2 chunks. He gave PP's lists of one, two or eight words and after were asked to recall them, it was found that the bigger the chunks the less that was remembered.
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One experiment into the duration of STM
Peterson and Peterson carried out a lab experiment. PP's were given sets of trigrams and counted backwards to avoid maintenance rehearsal, were asked to recall after intervals of 3 seconds, after 3 secs 80% recall, after 18 secs 10% recall
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One experiment into the way information is encoded in STM
Conrad presented PP's with letter in quick succession and were asked to write down as many as they could remember. The muddled up similar sounding letters like B and V meaning we encode acoustically.
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One experiment into the duration of LTM
Bahrick conducted a study, he had PP's who had left school 2 weeks to 57 years ago and were asked to recall names of classmates. 2 groups- recall + recognition. 90% of names were recognised after 15 yrs, Matching names to faces was 90% after 48 yrs.
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One experiment into the way information is encoded in LTM
Baddeley conducted a study where PP's were presented with lists of acoustically and semantically similar and dissimilar words, then asked to recall them. PP's made more mistakes on the semantically similar words, meaning we encode semantically.
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Outline the features of the Multi-store model.
Three unitary stores- Sensory memory- Short term memory- Long term memory. Info is passed from from SM to STM by paying attention to it. Information is passed from STM to LTM by maintenance rehearsal
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Evaluation of the Multi-store model.
Evidence for: Patients with brain damage have been shown to have a working STM, but no working LTM. Evidence against: The model puts too much emphasis on rehearsal and ignores incidental learning such as gossip.
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Outline the features of the Working Memory model.
Key component- Central executive, it has a supervisory function.The visuo-spatial sketchpad, deals with mental images, inner eye.The phonological loop, speech based info, phonological store- inner ear, articulatory control process- inner voice.
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Evaluation of the Working Memory model.
Evidence for: Supported by dual task experiments- visual and audio, two different stores is easier than using the same store, limited capacity. Evidence against:Too vague and EVR had a brain tumour and could do reasoning tasks but not decision making
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One investigation into Leading Questions in Eye Witness Testimony
PP's were shown a 30 sec video of a car crash. Asked to estimate the speed of the cars when the hit, smashed, collided, bumped or contacted. After they were asked if they had seen any broken glass. Estimated speed increased with strength of verb.
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Leading questions findings and conclusion
Smashed = 41mph compared to contacted= 32mph. More people in the smashed (32%) condition said they had seen broken glassthan in the hit (14%) condition. Post event info can affect memory.
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Criticism of investigation into leading questions
Study focuses on peripheral details like broken glass. Other studies show it is harder to distort memory for KEY DETAILS with post event information.
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One investigation into the affect of Anxiety in Eye Witness Testimony
A lab experiment by Loftus into Weapon focus. 2 conditions. 1st: PP's overhear heated exchange between 2 people, man emerges holding greasy pen. 2nd:man emerges holding bloody paper knife. PP's later given 50 photos and asked to identify man.
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Findings and Criticism of investigation into Anxiety
PP's were more accurate (49%) because they were less anxious compared to PP's in 2nd condition(33% accuracy). Criticism: artificial study- real life studies show anxiety increase accuracy of EWT
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One investigation into the affect of Age in Eye Witness Testimony
Parker and Carranza- primary school children were less likely to correctly identify a criminal (after watching video of mock crime) than college students. However they were more likely to choose somebody.
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Criticism of investigation into Age
Artificial study. Own age bias is not taken into account in this investigation
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Outline the features of the Cognitive Interview
Four features: 1. Report everything. 2. Mental reinstatement of original context e.g. weather, sounds. 3. Change perspective- look at it from another witness's point of view (what they saw). Change order- start from most significant and work back
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Cognitive interview
Advantage: increases the amount of correct information from eyewitness. Disadvantage: takes a lot of time and training to do properly
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What are the two Memory Improvement Techniques?
Method of Loci- imagine a familiar journey, place information at specific locations and recall as you recall the journey i.e. rooms in your house. Acronyms (forming words from intial letters) and Acrostics ( making a sentence using initial letters)
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Card 2

Front

One experiment into the duration of STM

Back

Peterson and Peterson carried out a lab experiment. PP's were given sets of trigrams and counted backwards to avoid maintenance rehearsal, were asked to recall after intervals of 3 seconds, after 3 secs 80% recall, after 18 secs 10% recall

Card 3

Front

One experiment into the way information is encoded in STM

Back

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Card 4

Front

One experiment into the duration of LTM

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

One experiment into the way information is encoded in LTM

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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