Psychology - Long Term Memory

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  • Created by: Lili
  • Created on: 30-10-13 12:15
Describe Long Term Memory.
In theory is is unlimited in capacity and duration.
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Describe the Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger (1975) study.
They used 400 ex-high-school students of varied ages. 1. The participants had free recall of their previous class mates. 2. They were then showed photos and asked to name classmates.
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What were Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger's findings?
That even after 34 years, the participants were still able to remember 90% of their class mates.
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What were some of the problems with the Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger study?
Some participants may look at year books more often than other participants. Some could live in small towns where as others might've moved away. Living in the same place reinforce the memory as you may still see people who went to school with them.
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What were some of the problems with the Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger study?
They are using a memory cue (photo) aiding their memories.
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What was Sach's (1967) method when researching encoding in LTM?
Presented participants with a sentence. A few minutes after the presentation the subjects could not decide whether they had heard either: The author sent the committee a long letter or A long letter was sent to the committee by the author.
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What were Sach's findings?
Both options were semantically similar, showing that encoding in LTM is SEMANTIC, as the meaning rather than the exact format was encoded.
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What did Craik and Lockhart (1972) propose?
They proposed that the depth of processing that happens which determines what is stored in LTM.
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What are the different types of processing?
Rehearsal, Depth of Analysis, Elaboration, Organisation and Distinctiveness
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Describe Rehearsal.
This is merely repetition of a fairly shallow processing.
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What is the Depth of Analysis?
This refers to how strongly a stimulus is focused on and worked on. The idea is that the deeper something is processed the better it is remembered.
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Craik and Lockhart said that memory is a by-product of processing. How did their research support this?
Participants shown a list of words, (5 letter concrete nouns), and then asked questions for each (the answer was either 'yes' or 'no'). The questions were either Case (shallow processing), Rhyme (phonemic processing) or Sentence (semantic processing)
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What were Craik and Lockhart's findings?
They found that the words processed Semantically were better recalled, followed by the phonemic processing. This suggests that the deeper something is processed the better it is remembered.
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What is elaboration?
This refers to engaging in complex processing. It is thought that this can aid recall in LTM.
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What did Craik and Tulving (1975) research to support the idea of elaboration?
They asked participants to place a list of words in to either, a simple sentence, or a more complex sentence.
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What were the findings of Craik and Tulving?
That recall was twice as high for words accompanying more complex sentences, supporting the idea that elaboration benefits LTM.
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Define Organisation.
This is the categorisation that an individual uses to process information.
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What method did Mandler (1967) use?
Participants were given 52 picture cards, and were then asked to organise them into piles of their own choice (no fewer than 2, no more than 7) They were then asked to repeat the sorting until they had achieved 2 identical sorts.
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What method did Mandler (1967) use?
The subjects were then given a free recall test of the items on the cards.
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What were Mandler's findings?
That the participants who had decided to use 2 categories, recalled the fewest cards. He though that this was because the subjects who had used many categories has imposed more organisation on the list.
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Card 2

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Describe the Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger (1975) study.

Back

They used 400 ex-high-school students of varied ages. 1. The participants had free recall of their previous class mates. 2. They were then showed photos and asked to name classmates.

Card 3

Front

What were Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger's findings?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What were some of the problems with the Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger study?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What were some of the problems with the Bahrick, Bahrick and Wittinger study?

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