Psychology - Learning Keywords

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Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour.
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Reflex Actions
Automatic and untrained responses to a stimulus.
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A conditioned response that dies out.
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Spontaneous Recovery
A conditioned response that has dissapeared suddenly appears again.
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The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original stimulus is presented.
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(with reference conditioning) the conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented.
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Classical Conditioning
Learning through association.
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Operant Conditioning
Learning through rewards and consequences.
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Positive Reinforcement
A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood of that behaviour or action being repeated.
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A unpleasant stimulus given to weaken a particular behaviour or action. This reduces the likelihood of this action being repeated.
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Negative Reinforcement
When a unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action has been made.
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Behaviour Shaping
Changing behaviour in small steps.
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A persistent and irrational fear of an object, activity or situation - the typical symptoms are intense feelings of fear and anxiety to avoid the object, activity or situation.
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Immediate exposure to the feared object/activity/situation
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Systematic Desensitisation
Gradual exposure to the feared object/activity/situation
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Aversion Therapy
A treatment used for addictions, such as drug and alcohol dependancy, this therapy makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the addictive substance
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Primary Reinforcer
A reward, such as food and water, which is required for an animal or human to survive.
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Secondary Reinforcer
A reward such as money or a token that the animal or person can exchange for a primary reinforcer.
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Token Economy Programme
They are used in prisons to encourage offenders to obey prison rules and tyhey have also been used in hospitals, such as psychiatric wards.
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Reflex Actions


Automatic and untrained responses to a stimulus.

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Spontaneous Recovery


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