PSYCHOLOGY GENES AND HORMONES

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Who has XY pair of chromosomes?
Males
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Who has XX pair of chromosomes
Females
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How many pairs of chromosomes does each person have?
23
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What do the sex chromosomes (pair) do?
Determine an individuals sex
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What does the Y chromosome do?
Determines an individuals sex
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What happens in prenatal development?
During P.D all individuals start out the same with after a few weeks both M and F embryos having essentially feminine external genitalia
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What happens when the foetus is 3 months?
At about 3 months if the foetus is to develop male the testes normally produce testosterone causing external male genitalia to develop
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What does Genetic transmission explain?
How individuals acquire their sex, and also aspects of gender because of the link between genes and genitalia and hormones
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What do chromosomes do?
Initially determine a persons sex
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WHat is most gender development governed by
Hormones
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When are hormones produced?
Prenatally and in adolescence during puberty which leads to secondary sexual characteristics
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What do hormones influence?
The development of genitalia and the development of the brain, both influencing gender behaviour
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How can the role of hormones in gender development be seen?
By studying individuals who have been exposed prenatally to abnormal hormones levels (intersex individuals)
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What are intersex individuals?
People who have a mismatch between internal/external genitalia and gender identity
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What is an androgen?
Male hormones e.g. testosterone
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WHat is androgen insensitiviy syndrome?
Where certain XY individuals may have an insensitivity to hormones such as testosterone and in extreme cases no external male genitalia will develop
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Example of androgen insensitivity hormone?
The Batista Family (4 XY indivuals raised as females with no external male genitalia)
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What occurs when XX females have prenatally high levels of male hormones leading to varying external male genitalia as a result?
Congenital Adrenal hyperplasia
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Apart from development of genitalia what can hormones also have an affect on?
Brain development
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What did Hoag (2008) find?
Girls appear better at social skills however worse at spatial navigation -suggesting brain differences
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Who were Gerschwind and Galaburda with reference to brain development
They were the first to suggest that sex differences may be caused by the effects of testosterone levels on the developing brain
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What does the idea of hormone influences on brain development suggest about David Reimar?
Suggests why he "felt" he was a boy even though raised as a gril because male brains are exposed prenatally to more testosterone than female brasin masculinising the brain
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Where have the effects of testosterone on brain development been confirmed?
In non-human animals
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What year was Quadagno et al's aniaml research on brain development
1977
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What was Quadagno (1977's) research findings on brain development
Female monkeys deliberately exposed to testosterone during prenatal development engaged in more rough + tumble play, being more agressive than other females
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Who has XX pair of chromosomes

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Females

Card 3

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How many pairs of chromosomes does each person have?

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Card 4

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What do the sex chromosomes (pair) do?

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Card 5

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What does the Y chromosome do?

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