psychology gender

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Androgen insensitivity sydrome (AIS) - role of genes and hormones
normally external genitalia are in accord with gentic sex however in some cases when a genetic male is exposed to little testosterone they appear extremely female
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Geschwind and galaburda - role of genes and hormones
suggest differences may be caused by testosterone on the developing brain. Males are exposed to more so therefore lead to a masculanised brain (could explain david reiner)
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money and ehrhardt - role of genes and hormones
claimed that the biological sex was not the main factor in brain development but rearing was where intersex individs could be raised as boy or girl (david reimer cs)
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David reimer case study - role of genes and hormones
Twins were circumsised due to urinal problems one op botched and penis burnt off Money said as long as child was young enough could be brought up as girl. Given hormones but always didnt feel right always outcast. reverted after parents told him
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Reiner and gearheart - role of genes and hormones
supported david reimer c/s. 16 genetic males born with almost no penis, 14 were raised as females but 8 reassigned by age of 16 suggesting biological factors are a key role
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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) - role of genes and hormones
occurs when females are exposed to high levels of testosterone resulting in varying degrees of male genetalia.
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kuhn & steiner - evolutionary explanations of gender role
suggested division of labour may be why humans surived wheres neanderthels didnt as both man and women hunted so reporoduction wasnt successful.
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Buss - evolutionary explanations of gender role
gender role behaviours are related to reproductive strategies. suggested men look for partners who are physically attractive for reproductive success whereas women are intrested in resources they provide.
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Baren- cohen - evolutionary explanations of gender role
E-S theory - suggests gender differences may be a result of selection pressures for males who develop better hunting strategies. women are better at empathising whereas males are better at systemising therefore assigned gender roles.
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taylor et al - evolutionary explanations of gender role
tend and befriend- as a result of protecting children being primary caregivers women have adpated to tend and befreind when dealing with stress whereas males get ready to flee or fight.
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waynforth and dunbar - evolutionary explanations of gender role
mate choice- used personal ads to assess what men and women were seeking and advertising.44% of males sought physically attractive partner whereas 22 % for femles. 50% of females offered attractivness whereas 34% of males did.
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Ennis et all - evolutionary explanations of gender role
tend and befreind- conducted a natural experiment to test stress repsponses, samples levels of cortisol a week before exams. There was a high increase in males however decrease in females suggesting we repspond differently.
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money and ehrhardt - biosocial approach the gender development
suggested once a biological boy or girl is born, social labelling and diff treatment for boys/ girls interacts with biological factors to steer development. it is rearing which is main in gender development. before age of 3 can be broight up oppo sex
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Eagly and wood - biosocial approach the gender development
social role theory- said evolutionary theory wrong saying selective pressures cause physical & psychological diffs, but said only physical. Physcial diffferences lead to sex role allocations which then lead to psychological differeces - assigned role
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eagly and wood - biosocial approach the gender development
suggest hormonal differences may be the results of social roles rather than the cause. Eg men participate in more athletic and competitive events which creates higher levels of testosterone.
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money and ehrhardt - biosocial approach the gender development
found a problem in there study where john reimer reassigned. also case study was from abnormal individuals so had sample bias.
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luxen - biosocial approach the gender development
argues against social role theory says evolutionary can be explained. - argues seelctive pressures act directly on behaviour resulting in physical and psychological differences
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luxen - biosocial approach the gender development
points to research which shows that very young children display sex differences such as toy preferences suggesting preferences and biological rather than psychological as sex role socialisation is unlikely at young age
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kohlberg - cognitive development theory
Gender constancy theory- stage 1) gender labelling (2-3 hlf yrs) 2) gender stability (3 half-4half yrs) 3) gender consistancy ( 6+)
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thompson - cognitive development theory
supported gender labelling, found 76% of 2 year olds could identify their gender whereas 90% for 3.
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slaby and frey - cognitive development theory
supported gender stability- asked Q to young children such as were you a boy/girl as a baby? will you grow up to be mum/dad? children didnt recognise traits stable until 3/4
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Slaby and frey - cognitive development theory
Gender consistancy found children who showed high in gender consistancy showed greater intrest in same sex models.
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martin and halverson - cognitive development theory
gender schema theory- argue processes happen before gender consistancy achieved. 1) schemas- clusters info about gender appro behavior 2)ingrup/outgroup processes- children mot intrested in gender appro schema. 3) resilience gender beliefs-
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martin and little - cognitive development theory
found children under the age of 4 found no signs of gender stability/ consistancy but did display strong stereotypes of what boys/girls permitted to do- aquire info before kohlberg suggested.
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martin and halverson - cognitive development theory
ingroup/outgroup schemas- found when children were asked to recall pictures of people they remebered gender consitant ones better than non eg male firefighter / female nurse
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bradbard et al - cognitive development theory
found children pay more attention to ingroup schemas. told 4-9 year olds that neutral items eg pizza cutter/burglar alarm were either boy/girl items. showed more intrest and week later remebered those related to gender
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sandra bem - psychological androgyny
argued the traditional views of gender means you have to select 1 and behave that way. argued better to be androgynous as have grester flexibility and psychological adjustment
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bem - psychological androgyny
bem invested the BSRI - bem sex role inventory and test ideas and found 34% males were and 27% of females were androgynous. They are said to have more self-esteem/ emotional well-being
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sandra bem- psychological androgyny
androgynous people have different cognitive style. when faces with a decision of how to behave in partic sitch they rsponse independantly (gender aschematic) whereas sex typed person would act accordingly (gender schematic)
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bem et al - psychological androgyny
observed feminine and androgynous individuals and found they acted more warmly with a baby and someone with personal problems whereas males were constrained by gender roles
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whitley - psychological androgyny
critisised bems BSRI suggesting that people who have both female and male characteristics will benefit from more personality traits however it doesnt mean they have an androgynous personality.
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Stoller - pyschological explanations of gender dysphoria
proposed that GID results from distorted parental attitudes. He found individuals diagnosed with GI had overly close mother son relationships which may lead to gender confusion
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coates et al -pyschological explanations of gender dysphoria
produced a case on boy who developed GID, axplaining it was a defensive reaction to his mothers depression following abortion. The boy was 3 whilst it occured, a sensitive time to gender which might have led to cross gender fantasy as result of traum
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cole et al - pyschological explanations of gender dysphoria
studied 435 individuals experiencing GID and found the psychiatric conditions displayed was no greater than found in normal population suggesting it is unrelated to childhood trauma
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biological explanations to gender dyshpohria
environmental pollution may cause problems, insecticide DDt contains oestrogens which may mean males are prenatally exposed to high levels of female hormone. Also AIS and CAH
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Vreugdenhil et al - biological explanations to gender dyshpohria
reported that boys born to mothers who were exposed to dioxins (which promote oestrogens) displayed feminised play
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zhou et al - biological explanations to gender dyshpohria
looked at the region of the hypothalomus and found it is normally larger in males, then looked at male- female transexuals and found they had a female sized hypothalamus
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bandura - social influences on gender roles
developed social learning theory in context of aggresive behaviour but can be applied to any.people acquire new behaviours through observing what people do and then modelling the behaviour. vicarious reinforcement
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bandura - social influences on gender roles
developed SLT to emphasize cognitive factors = social cognitive theory.which includes modelling, enactive representation and direct tuition
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idle et al - social influences on gender roles
fathers usually respond more negatively than a mother to their sons feminine play
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bussey and bandura - social influences on gender roles
found in the media males are portrayed as independant with engagaing occupations whereas women are independant and unambitious.
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smith and lloyd - social influences on gender roles
observed mothers playing with an infant who was either presented as a boy or a girl. The mothers selected gender appropriate toys and responded more activiely when boys showed increased motor acitvity
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lamb and roopnarine - social influences on gender roles
observed pre school children at play and found that when a male- typed behaviour was reinforced in girls the bhaviour continued for a shoter time to when reinforced in boys
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pingree - social influeces on gender roles
media- found stereotypiing was was reduced when children were shown commercials with with women in non- traditional roles however pre-adolescent boys displayed stronger stereotypes when exposed to non traditional models
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munroe and munroe - cross cultural studies of gender role
found that food prepand childcare was predominantly carried out by women in all societies, sometimes shared but male was never primary caregiver
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Margaret mead - cross cultural studies of gender role
studied social groups in papa new guinea. Arapesh- men&women gentle responsive and co operative. Mundugumor- Men&women violent and aggresive seeking power. Tchambuli- women were more dominant, men emotionally dependant. suggesting cultual determinism
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Williams and best - cross cultural studies of gender role
studied gender stereotypes in 30 diff nations involving 2800 uni students.Given 300 word checklist to decided which adjs male/female. Broad link across countries, men dominant and aggresive women nurturing and deferent.
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berry et al - cross cultural studies of gender role - differences
looked at male superiority on spatial perceptual tasks in 17 societies. Superiority only found in tight knit societies but reversed on nomadic societies
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sugihara and katsurada - cross cultural studies of gender role
found that japanese men do not seek to be 'macho' like americans but instead well rounded in arts - traditionally seen as more feminine
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kimura - cross cultural studies of gender role
spatial perception- offers biological explanation suggesting that in hunting societies those with poor spatial perceptions are likely to die eliminating the genes therefore in nomadic socities men and women will have similar spatial abilitys.
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Geschwind and galaburda - role of genes and hormones

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suggest differences may be caused by testosterone on the developing brain. Males are exposed to more so therefore lead to a masculanised brain (could explain david reiner)

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money and ehrhardt - role of genes and hormones

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David reimer case study - role of genes and hormones

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Reiner and gearheart - role of genes and hormones

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