PSYCHOLOGY GCSE TOPIC D

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Classical Conditioning
A learning process which builds up an association between the two stimuli through repeated pairings.
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Association
The link between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus that make the neutral stimulus cause the same response.
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Generalisation
When a conditioned response is produced to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.
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Phobia
An intense fear that prevents ‘normal living’ in some way.
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Extinction
The loss of a classically conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeated many times without the unconditioned stimulus.
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Modeling
Imitating the behavior of someone.
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Vicarious Reinforcement
Learning through the positive consequences of other people’s actions rather than firsthand – we are more likely to copy if they are rewarded.
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Prepardness
The tendency to learn some associations more easily, quickly and permanently than others.
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Questionaries
A research method using written questions
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Open (-ended) Questions
Question that asks for description and detail.
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Closed Question
Simple question with few possible answers.
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Likert-style question
Question using statements with five choices from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’.
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Rank-Style Question
Question with points either in order that can be chosen or that can be put in order.
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Standardised Instructions
Guidance for participants that is the same for everyone.
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Response Bias
the patterns that participants fall into when answering a questionnaire, for example always saying ‘yes’ or trying to guess the aim.
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Social Desirability Bias
When participants give the answers they think will be acceptable to other people, to make themselves look better.
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Anxiety
A state of fear or worry.
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Hierarchy of Fears
A list of fears that are arranged from most to least feared.
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Distressing
When a person is suffering physically or psychologically. They may feel harm, embarrassment or pain.
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Right to withdraw
The ability of a person to remove himself or herself from the situation.
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Custom
A longstanding practice of a particular group of people.
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Tradition
A practice that has been handed down through generations.
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Social Norm
A behavior or belief that is expected and accepted in a particular culture.
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Collectivist
Describes a culture that encourages group dependence, cooperation and group identity, e.g. Japan. People rely on each other to achieve together.
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Individualistic
Describes a culture that encourages independence, personal achievement, competition and individuality.e.g. the USA.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The link between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus that make the neutral stimulus cause the same response.

Back

Association

Card 3

Front

When a conditioned response is produced to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An intense fear that prevents ‘normal living’ in some way.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The loss of a classically conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeated many times without the unconditioned stimulus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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