Psychology flashcards 8

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Deviation from social norms - definition
This uses what is completely accepted in society as a benchmark for what is normal/abnormal. This included behaviour which is very strange, disturbing or offensive to others
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Failure to function - definition
Uses the question of whether the individual can cope with day to day life and its responsibilities as a benchmark for what is normal/abnormal. Focuses mainly on how it impacts negatively on the individual themselves.
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Deviation from ideal mental health - definition
Turns failure to function definition on its head, rather than focusing on individual deficiencies in coping, asks 'what does idea mental health look like' 'in what ways might we try to achieve ideal mental health?' -suggests 'normal' is the ideal
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Deviation from social norms - outline
Every society has social norms-the moral standards/rules about acceptable behaviours, values and beliefs. People who violate social norms are considered deviant/abnormal. Includes behaviours that are incomprehensible (hard to understand)
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Deviation from social norms - examples
An adult talking to an imaginary friend, public nudity, going to work drunk
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Explicit rules
I.e rules, violation of these is a criminal act (arson, stealing, drunk driving)
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Implicit rules
Unspoken, eg: not standing too close to a person when talking to them thanking someone for a gift, dressing 'appropriately' to the situation
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Deviation from social norms - limitations - deviant or abnormal?
Deviating from the social norm doesn't mean someone has psychological disorder , eg: a heavily pierced and tattooed man, a cannabis user, naked ramblers-don't necessarily need psychological help, could argue those who are intolerant-abnormal
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Deviation from social norms - limitations - abnormal or criminal?
Hard to make distinction between abnormality and criminality, eg: dodging tax payments-doesn't necessarily have psychological disorder.
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Deviation from social norms - limitations - changes over time in what is seem as abnormal
Norms can vary over time, behaviour that would have been abnormal in one era is no longer defined as abnormal in another, eg: attitudes to sexuality, homosexual acts (male) used to be illegal, subjected to unpleasant 'cures'/prison, now accepted
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Failure to function adequately - outline
Suffering and distress with day to day life, eg: someone with depression may not be able to sleep and may not be able to motivate themselves for social activities, taking time off work. Doctors use: 'global assessment of functioning' scale
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Failure to function adequately - strength
Better than deviation from social norms, not tied to moral standards of the time, accepts people may display unusual behaviours, but if not harming themselves or others and are functioning adequately day to day, they don't require intervention.
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Failure to function adequately - limitation - distress to whom?
Can still function adequately despite being abnormal eg Peter Sutcliffe the Yorkshire ripper, murdered 13 women, had job, happily married, number of friends
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Failure to function adequately - limitation - reason for behaviour?
Some people fail to function but do not have a psychological disorder, could be rational reaction to situation, eg death of close family member, could make them to upset to go to work. Some show inadequate functioning on principle-hunger strikes
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Failure to function adequately - limitation - cause of effect?
Failure to function may be caused by lack of support within society, rather than being individual's fault. Eg physically disabled person may find it difficult to keep house clean, could become depressed-inability to function caused disorder
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Deviation from ideal mental health - outline
Jahoda 1958): turned the way we look at abnormality on its head by looking at the positives and not the negatives. If we identify criteria for ideal mental health, people lacking in these qualities could be considered to have a psychological disorder
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Deviation from ideal mental health - outline - 6 major criteria for optimal living
Positive attitude towards one's self. Accurate perception of reality. Personal autonomy. Environmental mastery. Resistance to stress. Self actualisation.
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Positive attitudes towards oneself
Having a positive self-concept and a sense of identity. A mentally healthy attitude included having self-confidence, self-reliance and self-acceptance. A person needs to accept their limitations and potential, to be healthy.
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Accurate perception of reality
Seeing oneself and others in realistic terms, neither with 'rose-tinged glasses' or overly pessimistic
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Personal autonomy
A mentally healthy person relies on their inner resources and are not dependent on others
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Environmental mastery
Being competent in all walks of life. Work, relationships, leisure etc. A flexible personality and ability to adapt to change is important here.
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Resistance to stress
A mentally healthy person has developed good coping skills for tackling stressful situations
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Self-actualisation of one's potential
Everyone should be striving to be the best that they can possibly be. Mental health issues arise when we are prevented from fulfilling our potential
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Deviation from ideal mental health - strength
Focuses on the positive and not the negative aspects of life, it recognises that if people are not living at an optimal level, they should receive acknowledgement and maybe help if they require.
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Deviation from ideal mental health - limitations 1 + 2
It is argued that very few people reach the state of self-actualisation, achieving idea mental health is almost impossible. + Many of us lack some of these characteristics much of the time but we do not all have psychological disorders.
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Deviation from ideal mental health - limitation - culture differences - individualist definition
Individualist cultures (mainly western societies) and collectivist cultures (mainly non-western societies) vary, individualist-emphasis on independence and autonomy, personal goals. Collectivist-depending on others and contributing to group.
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Limitation shared by all definitions
Cultural bias: all show 'ethnocentrism' -you judge people according to your own cultural standards. Most psychologists who work with these definitions are American/European. Eg: hearing voices-schizophrenia western, other cultures-calling
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Failure to function - definition

Back

Uses the question of whether the individual can cope with day to day life and its responsibilities as a benchmark for what is normal/abnormal. Focuses mainly on how it impacts negatively on the individual themselves.

Card 3

Front

Deviation from ideal mental health - definition

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Deviation from social norms - outline

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Deviation from social norms - examples

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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