Psychology flashcards 7

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Resisting conformity
What makes someone people rebel whilst others conform to the group-probably combination of situational dispositional and cultural factors
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Situational factors affecting conformity - Asch's variations
Conformity dropped when majority was not unanimous - took one dissenter(confederate who disagreed with others) for conformity to drop to 5% (from 32%)
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Situational factors affecting conformity - Asch's variations
When there was inconsistency in the majority (confederate changed response, so participant gained or lost a supporter) - conformity decreased
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Situational factors affecting conformity - Crutchfield
Task more difficulty- conformity increased, supports Asch's view that changing the situation can help people to resist conforming to the majority
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Dispositional factors (individual differences)
Some people inclined to do their own thing, regardless of situation-non-conformist disposition. Locus of control and intelligence.
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Locus of control
Rotter (1956) the extent to which individuals believe that they can contro events that affect them. Concept 'locus' refers to your belief about where control is located in your life. Can be internal/external
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Internal locus of control
What happens to you is a result of your own efforts and abilities
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External locus of control
Events are mainly influenced by factors beyond your control eg: fate, other people
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Theory
Rotter (1966): argued that internal locus of control helps people to resist conformity.
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Challenging evidence for locus of control
Williams and Warchal (1981): 30 university students, conformity tasks based on Asch's study, personality questionnaires, found locus of control score made no difference, assertiveness more important
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Supporting evidence for locus of control
Atgis (1998): analysed results from range of studies into locus of control and conformity, found a +0.37 correlation between having an external locus of control and conformity, correlation is statistically significant
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Evidence for intelligence affecting conformity
Crutchfield (1955): high intelligence and leadership ability was associated with lower conformity
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Evidence for need for social approval affecting conformity
Crowne and Marlow (1964): those with low scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (measured whether behaving in socially desirable way was important to the individual) were less likely to confirm in an Asch's type situation.
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Individualist cultures
People more concerned with their own and their families self-interests and individual initiatives are valued
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Collectivist cultures
People emphasise loyalty to the group and being concerned about the needs and interests of others. Group decision-making is preferred to individual decisions.
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Evidence for cultural differences affecting conformity
Smith and Bond (1993): meta-analysis of studies from range of different countries, average conformity collectivist countries-37%, individualist countries-25%
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Asch's found much higher levels of conformity in the US in the 1950s than Smith and Bond did overall in individualist countries in the 1990s
Because in the 1950s conformity was more significant in culture than in the 1990s-with anti-communism at its height with McCarthyism and the red scare
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Resisting obedience - situational factors - Milgram's variations
When 2 comfederate teachers were paired with the real participant refused to obey- dropped to 10% (from 35%). participants forced learner's hand on plate to deliver shock -30%. Experimenter left room, instructed participant by telephone - 20.5%
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Resisting obedience - dispositional factors - locus of control - evidence 1
Elms and Milgram (1974): personalities of disobedient participants from first four obedience experiments, found disobedient participants had high internal locus of control + scored higher on scale measuring social and moral responsibility
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Resisting obedience - dispositional factors - locus of control - evidence 2
Blass (1991): reviewed and re analysed previous data on locus of control in obedience procedures based on Milgram's study, found some evidence that an internal locus of control helped people to resist pressures to obey, but some found no evidence
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Resisting obedience - dispositional factors - moral development - theory
Kohlberg(1969): believed moral development was linked to cognitive (intellectual) development. This means that people progress through the stages as their thought processes become more sophisticated, but not everyone reaches the higher level stages.
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Resisting obedience - dispositional factors - moral development - evidence
Kohlberg(1973): presented group of Milgram's participants with a set of imaginary moral dilemmas. He found that those who were operating at s higher level of moral development were less likely to obey in Milgram's procedure.
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Resisting obedience - dispositional factors - culture and gender
Respect for authority varies between countries. Individualist cultures:emphasises needs of individual, responsible for own actions, freedom of speech, enable people to resist pressure to conform-allow people to speak out against unjust authority
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Resisting obedience - dispositional factors - culture - evidence
Kilham and Mann (1974): Australia, individualist, showed significant culture differences in independent behaviour.
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Resisting obedience - dispositional factors - gender - evidence
Milgram-no difference. Kilham and Mann (1974): 40% of men went to 450 volts, women-16%)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Situational factors affecting conformity - Asch's variations

Back

Conformity dropped when majority was not unanimous - took one dissenter(confederate who disagreed with others) for conformity to drop to 5% (from 32%)

Card 3

Front

Situational factors affecting conformity - Asch's variations

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Situational factors affecting conformity - Crutchfield

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Dispositional factors (individual differences)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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