psychology cognitive

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what is EWT
the evidence given in court by a person who has witnessed a crime/incident with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime.
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What is the real life case study concerning accuracy of EWT
case study of Jennifer Thompson who accused the wrong man of attacking her and getting put in life imprisonment.
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what are the different factors that can influence EWT
emotional states - anxiety, misleading information and the way that questions are asked.
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what is the definition of a leading question
a question that by its form or content, suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads them to a desired answer.
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what study, by whom, aimed to look at the impact of leading questions on memory
loftus study. Did a lab experiment with 150 ppts and showed them a clip of a car accident. split into 2 groups and one group was asked a leading question. when asked later 17.3% group 2 gave incorrect info about a barn and only 2.7% from group 1
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what other study looked at misleading information
loftus and Zanni did a lab experiment and showed ppts a clip of a car accident and then asked questions. half were asked if they had seen A broken headlight, the other THE broken headlight. 17% asked about THE said they had seen one and only 7% other
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what is a schema
a script of events that each individual has of people/events
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what did list do in her experiment
drew up a list of elements that might occur during a shoplifting incident, asked them to rate them in terms of how likely they thought they would happen. she then made a video involving things that were high and low probabilities of occurring.
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does anxiety affect recall
the emotional state caused by anxiety can impair the ability to both encode and retrieve memories.
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what did deffenbacher use to explain the effect of anxiety on recall, and what did he find
used the yerkes-dodson law (inverted u). moderate amounts of emotional arousal improve the detail and accuracy of memory but too much or too little decrease the accuracy and detail.
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what supports the yerkes-dodson law
Ginet and Verkampt. Produced moderate anxiety in ppts by telling them that fake electrodes gave electric shocks. and had to recall details of a traffic accident. other ppts were told that the electrodes were just for show. the ppts w mod arousal ^EWT
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who conducted a study aiming to see whether a weapon would have an influence on recall and what were the findings
loftus - the weapon focus effect. found that (no weapon) 49% ppts gave accurate info, (weapon) ppts 33% gave accurate info
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which other study supports loftus weapons focus effect
loftus and burns
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who conducted a natural experiment which found that emotional arousal may actually enhance the accuracy of memory
christian and Hubinette
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who did an experiment to see the effect of age on EWT
coxon and Valentine
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who disagrees with codon and valentine
Cohen and Faulkner
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what are the 4 evaluation points of age effecting recall
methodological issues, ethics - psychological harm, confounding variables - Ellas states that other factors have contributed to the findings not just age. e.g. teenagers may be more used to tests and motivated to achieve, e.c.t. Individual difference
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how can we improve the accuracy of EWT
the cognitive interview
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What is involved in the cognitive interview
context reinstatement, report everything, recall form changed perspective, recall in reverse order
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who did a study comparing the effectiveness of a cognitive interview and a standard interview
Geiselman
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What was involved in the Geiselman study
lab experiment. 89 undergraduates showed police training videos of violent crimes. 48 hrs later they were intervire - cog or standard. found that recalled 41.5 items in cog and 29.5 in the standard
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what are the differences between a standard and a cognitive interview
in standard ppts are given free recall and cog they have a structure, standard is easier, less accurate info from standard, standard is more susceptible to leading questions
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what are the strengths of research into EWT
effectiveness - fisher trained police in florida to do cog interviews and found a 47% info gain. real life application - stein and memo applied cog techniques to brazil and found more correct info from witnesses.
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what are the weaknesses of research into EWT
limited use by police. inaccurate info. practical problems. influence of time delay. less effective for interviewing young people
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what are the strategies for memory improvement
organisation through categories, mnemonics based on visual imagery - the method of loci, active processing, encoding and retrieval strategies.
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which study found that a title helps to organise the understanding of the knowledge and have greater recall
Bransford and Johnson
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active processing is based on research by who
Craik and Lockhart
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what are the three levels info can be processed on
physical (shallow level), Acoustic (intermediate level), semantic (Deepest level)
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evidence suggests that there is a link between mood and encoding, who found that 'sad' ppts were consistently slower at trying to recall positive memories than 'happy' ppts
teasdale and Fogarty
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